Cover Image

Feeding Biology and Food Composition in Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas 1771) in the Iranian Plateau

Alireza Pesarakloo, Nasrollah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Masoumeh Najibzadeh, Jahanshir Shakarami, Hajgholi Kami, Alireza Shayestehfar


The aim of this study was to bring new information regarding the feeding of one of the water frog species, Pelophylax ridibundus (marsh frog). Field surveys were carried out at 19 locations in 12 Iranian provinces. We examined the food composition of the marsh frog, throughout the distribution rang in Iran. The stomach contents were collected by using the stomach flushing method, stomach contents of 129 (68 males, 61 females) adult individuals were investigated, and 738 preys pertaining to nine prey classes were detected, predominantly terrestrial, within the diet of a P. ridibundus population. It was found that the species mainly fed on invertebrates; the most important prey taxa occurring in the diet were Arthropoda (91.77%). Among Arthropoda, the Insecta are remarkable for their wide presence in the stomach contents (79.87%). The average number of preys/individual was 5.68, while the maximum number of prey/individual was 43. There are no differences in size and diet between sexes and among the populations examined, but variation in diet among all localities clearly observed.


water frog; stomach flushing; Stomach contents; preys; Arthropoda; Insecta

Full Text:



Angelov P. and Bacvarov G. (1972), «Hrana na zemnovdnite v Bulgaria. Vrhu hranata na goljimata vodna zaba (Rana ridibunda Pallas) [Feeding amphibian of Bulgaria]», Nauch. Tr., 10, 139 – 144 [in Bulgarian].

Aszalos L., Bogdan H., Kovacs É. H., and Peter V. I. (2005), «Food composition of two Rana species on a forest habitat (Livada Plain, Romania)», North-Western J. Zool., 1, 25 – 30.

Atatür K. M., Arıkan H., and Mermer A. (1993), «A Preliminary study on the feeding biology of a Rana ridibunda (Anura, Ranidae) population from Beyşehir Lake», Turk. J. Zool., 17, 127 – 131.

Balint N., Indrei C., Ianc, R., and Ursut A. (2010), «On the diet of the Pelopylax ridibundus (Anura, Ranidae) in Ticleni, Romania», Biol. Env., 1(1), 57 – 66.

Baloutch M. and Kami H. G. (1995), Amphibians of Iran, Tehran Univ. Press, Tehran [in Farsi].

Bellocq M. I., Kloosterman K., and Smith S. M. (2000), «The diet of coexisting species of amphibian in Canadian jack pine forests», Herpetol. J., 10, 63 – 68.

Caldwell J. P. (1996), «The evolution of myrmechophagy and its correlates in poison frogs (Family Dendrobatidae)», J. Zool. Lond., 240, 75 – 101.

Çiçek K. and Mermer A. (2006), «Feeding biology of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda Pallas 1771, (Anura, Ranidae) in Turkey’s Lake District», North-Western J. Zool., 2(2), 57 – 72.

Cicort-Llcaciu A. Ş., Pelle C., and Boema I. T. (2013), «Note on the food composition of a Pelophylax ridibundus (Amphibia) population from the Dubova locality region (South-western Romania)», Biharean Biol., 7(1), 33 – 36.

Cogălniceanu D., Palmer M. W., and Ciubuc C. (2000), «Feeding in anuran communities on islands in the Danube floodplain», Amphibia–Reptilia, 22, 1 – 19.

Covaciu-Marcov S. D., Cupşa D., and Ghira I. (2000), «Trophical spectrum of a Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas 1771 population from Cefa (Bihor county, România)», Bacau Stud. Cer. Biol., 5, 107 – 115.

Covaciu-Marcov S. D., Ghira I., Cupşa D., and Sas I. (2005), «Feeding habits of Rana ridibunda Pallas 1771 (Anura, Ranidae) during winter at thermal sources from Bihor County (Romania)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 12(2), 87 – 93.

Fowler J., Cohen L., and Jarvis P. (1998), Practical Statistics for Field Biology, Wiley, New York.

Hirai T. and Matsui M. (2000), «Ant specialization in diet of the narrow-mouthed toad, Microhyla ornata, from Amamioshima Island of the Ryukyu Archipelago», Curr. Herpetol., 19, 27 – 34.

Hodar J. A. (1997), «The use of regression equations for estimation of prey length and biomass in diet studies of insectivore vertebrates», Miscellаnia Zool., 20, 1 – 10.

Houston W. W. K. (1973), «Food of common frog, Rana temporaria, on high moorland in northern England», J. Zool. Lond., 171, 153 – 165.

Measey G. J. (1998), «Diet of feral Xenopus laevis (Daudin) in South Wales, U.K»., J. Zool. Lond., 246, 287 – 298.

Mollov I. (2008), «Sex Based Differences in the Trophic Niche of Pelophylax ridibundus (Pallas, 1771) (Amphibia: Anura) from Bulgaria», Acta Zool. Bulgar., 60(3), 277 – 284.

Oana I. H., Andrei B., Daniel G., Larisa B., and Simona T. (2010), «The trophic spectrum of two brown frog populations (Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria) from Baia de Fier area, Romania», Herpetol. Roman., 4, 7 – 16.

Parker M. L. and Goldstein M. I. (2004), «Diet of the Rio Granade Leopard Frog (Rana berlandieri) in Texas», J. Herpetol., 38, 127 – 130.

Popovic E., Simic S., and Tallósi B. (1992), «Food analysis of some Rana species in the habitat of Carska Bara (YU)», TISCIA, 26, 1 – 3.

Simic S., Tallósi B., and Popovic E. (1992), «Seasonal changes in feeding of Rana ridibunda Pallas (Amphibia Anura) from Backwater Tisza», TISCIA, 26, 5 – 7.

Solé M., Beckmann O., Pelz B., Kwet A. N., and Engels W. (2005), «Stomach-flushing for diet analysis in anurans: an improved protocol evaluated in a case study in Araucaria forests, southern Brazil», Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Env., 40(1), 23 – 28.

Turgay F. (2001), Feeding Biology of Central Taurus Region (between 33rd and 36th E meridians of longitude) Ranid Frog (Anura: Ranidae) and Its Role in Biological Control. Ph.D. Thesis, Ege University Institute of Applied Sciences.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email