Rediscovery of Theloderma moloch (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Southeast Tibet, China after 102 Years

Cheng Li, Mian Hou, Guo-hua Yu, Fang Yan, Bing-zhang Li, Ke Jiang, Pi-peng Li, Nikolai L. Orlov


Two individuals of Bug-eyed treefrogs were collected from Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve, Motuo County (= Medog), Linzhi Prefecture (=Nyingchi), Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region (= Tibet), China in May 2014. According to our identification these treefrogs refer to Theloderma moloch (Annandale, 1912), which is the first rediscovery from China after 102 years since its description.


Theloderma moloch; Xizang (Tibet); China; rediscovery

Full Text:



Ahl E. (1927), «Zur Systematik der asiatischen Arten der Froschgattung Rhacophorus», Sitzungsber. Gesellschaft Naturforsch. Freunde zu Berlin, 15, 35 – 47.

Ahl E. (1931), «Amphibia, Anura III, Polypedatidae», Das Tierreich, 55.

Ahmed M. F., Das A., and Dutta S. K. (2009). Amphibians and Reptiles of Northeast India — A Photographic Guide, Aaranyak, Guwahati, India.

Annandale N. (1912), «Zoological results of the Abor Expedition, 1911 – 1912. I. Amphibia», Rec. Indian Mus., 8, 7 – – 36.

Ao J. M., Bordoloi S., and Ohler A. (2003), «Amphibian fauna of Nagaland with nineteen new records from the state including five new records for India», Zoos’ Print J., 18, 1117 – 1125.

Athreya R. (2006), Eaglenest Biodiversity Project (2003 – – 2006): Conservation Resources for Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Kaati Trust, Pune, web-version.

Bain R. H., Nguyen T. Q., and Doan K. V. (2009), «A new species of the genus Theloderma Tschudi, 1838 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from northwestern Vietnam», Zootaxa, 2191, 58 – 68.

Biju S. D. Senevirathne G., Garg S., Mahony S., Kamei R. G., Thomas A., Shouche Y., Raxworthy C. J., Meegaskumbura M., and van Bocxlaer I. (2016), «Frankixalus, a New Rhacophorid Genus of Tree Hole Breeding Frogs with Oophagous Tadpoles», PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0145727; doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145727

Beolens B., Watkins M., and Grayson M. (2013), The Eponym Dictionary of Amphibians, Pelagic Publishing, Milton Keynes, UK.

Boulenger G. A. (1886), «First report on additions to the batrachian collection in the Natural History Museum», Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 411 – 416.

Boulenger G. A. (1903), «Descriptions of three new batrachians from Tonkin», Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 7, 12, 186 – 188.

Bourret R. (1937), «Notes herpétologiques sur l’Indochine française. XIV. Les batraciens de la collection du Laboratoire des Sciences Naturelles de l’Université. Descriptions de quinze especes ou variétés nouvelles», Ann. Bull. Gén. l’Inst. Publ. Hanoi, 1937, 5 – 56.

Chanda S. K., Das I., and Dubois A. (2000), «Catalogue of amphibian types in the collection of the zoological survey of India», Hamadryad, 25(2), 100 – 128.

Chanda S. K. (2002), Handbook. Indian Amphibians, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta.

Das I. and Dutta S. K. (1998), «Checklist of the amphibians of India, with English common names», Hamadryad, 23(2), 63 – 68.

Dinesh K. P., Radhakrishnan C., Gururaja K. V., and Bhatta G. (2009), «An annotated checklist of Amphibia of India with some insights into the patterns of species discoveries, distribution and endemism», Rec. Zool. Surv. India Occas. Pap., 302, 1 – 153.

Dinesh K. P., Radhakrishnan C., Gururaja K. V., Deuti K., and Bhatta G. (2013), A Checklist of Amphibia of India with IUCN Red List Status, Zoological Survey of India,$final.pdf (online version).

Dubois A. (1981), «Liste des genres et sous-genres nominaux de Ranoidea (Amphibiens Anoures) du monde, avec identification de leurs espèces types; consequences nomenclaturales», Monit. Zool. Ital. N. Ser. Suppl., 15, 225 – 284.

Dutta S. K. (1997), Amphibians of India and Sri Lanka (Checklist and Bibliography), Odyssey Publishing House, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.

Fei L. (1999), Atlas of Amphibians of China, Henan Press of Science and Technology [in Chinese].

Fei L., Hu S. Q, Ye C. Y., and Huang Y. Z. (2009), Fauna Sinica. Amphibia. Vol. 2. Anura, Chinese Academy of Science, Science Press, Beijing [in Chinese].

Fei L., Ye C. Y., and Jiang J. P. (2010), Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians, Sichuan Publishing Group/Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology [in Chinese].

Fei L., Ye C. Y., and Jiang J. P. (2012), Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians and Their Distributions, Sichuan Publishing Group/Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology [in Chinese].

Felsenstein J. (1985), «Phylogenies and the comparative method», Am. Naturalist, 126, 1 – 25.

Feng R. J., Bo Y., Zhang D. H., and Lu Y. H. (2011), «Frog singing in forest», Forestry of Guangxi, 29(5), 40 – 41 [in Chinese].

Frost D. R. (ed.) (1985), Amphibian Species of the World: a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Association of Systematic Collections, Lawrence (Kansas).

Grosjean S., Delorme M., Dubois A., and Ohler A. (2008), «Evolution of reproduction in the Rhacophoridae (Amphibia, Anura)», J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 46(2), 169 – 176.

Hu S. Q., Zhao E. M, Jiang Y. M., L. Fei L., Ye C. Y., Hu Q. X., Huang Q. Y., Huang Y. Z., and Tian W. S. (1987), «Amphibia-Reptilia of Xizang», in: The Series of the Scientific Expedition to the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, Science Press, Beijing [in Chinese].

Huelsenbeck J. P. and Ronquist F. (2001), «MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogeny», Bioinformatics, 17, 754 – 755.

Jiang K., Yan F., Wang K., Zou Da-Hu, Li C., and Che J. (2016), «A new genus and species of treefrog from Medog, southeastern Tibet, China (Anura, Rhacophoridae)», Zool. Res., 37(1), 15 – 20.

Li J. T., Che J., Murphy R. W., Zhao H., Zhao E. M., Rao D. Q., and Zhang Y. P. (2009), «New insights to the molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the Rhacophoridae (Amphibia: Anura) based on five nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, with comments on the evolution of reproduction», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 53, 509 – – 522.

Li J.-T., Rao D. Q., Murphy R. W., and Zhang Y. P. (2011), «The systematic status of rhacophorid frogs», Asiatic Herpetol. Res. Ser. 3, 2(1), 1 – 11.

Li P. P., Zhao E. M., and Dong B. J. (2010), Amphibians and Reptiles of Tibet, Science Press, Beijing.

Lost amphibians of India (2010), in: Search of Lost Species, Systematics Lab, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Delhi, web-version

Malkmus R., Manthey U., Vogel G., Hoffmann P., and Kosuch J. (2002), Amphibians and Reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo), Ruggell ARG Gantner Verlag KG, Münster.

Mathew R. and Sen N. (2010), Pictorial Guide to Amphibians of North East India, Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata.

McLeod D. S. and Norhayati A. (2007), «A new species of Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia», Russ. J. Herpetol., 14(1), 65 – 72.

Nguyen T. T., Matsui M., and Eto K. (2015), «Mitochondrial phylogeny of an Asian tree frog genus Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 85, 59 – 67.

Orlov N. L. (1997), «Die Theloderma-Arten Vietnams», Herpetofauna, 19(110), 5 – 9.

Orlov N. L., Dutta S. K., Ghate H. V., and Kent Y. (2006), «New species of Theloderma from Kon Tum Province (Vietnam) and Nagaland State (India) (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 13(2), 135 – 154.

Orlov N. L. and Ananjeva N. B. (2007), «Amphibians of South-East Asia», Trudy Zool. Inst. RAN, 309, 1 – 269 [in Russian].

Orlov N. L., Ryabov S. A., Ananjeva N. B., and Evsyunin A. A. (2010), Asian treefrogs of genus Theloderma Tschudi, 1838 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorinae), Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, RAS [in Russia with English title].

Orlov N. L., Poyarkov N. A., Vassilieva A. V., N. B., Nguyen T. T., Sang N. V., and Geissler P. (2012), «Taxonomic notes on rhacophorid frogs (Rhacophorinae: Rhacophoridae: Anura) of southern part of Annamite Mountains (Truong Son, Vietnam), with description of three new species», Russ. J. Herpetol., 19(1), 23 – 64.

Palumbi S. R, Martin A. P., Romano S. L., McMillan W. O., Stice L., Grabowski G. (1991), The Simple Fool’s Guide to PCR, Dept. of Zoology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Poyarkov N. A. Jr., Orlov N. L., Moiseeva A. V., Pawangkhanant P., Ruangsuwan T., Vassilieva A. V., Galoyan E. A., Nguyen T. T., and Gogoleva S. S. (2015), «Sorting out moss frogs: mtDNA data on taxonomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the indochinese species of the genus Theloderma (Anura, Rhacophoridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 22(4), 241 – 280.

Pyron R. A. and Wiens J. J. (2011), «A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of advanced frogs, salamanders, and caecilians», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 61, 543 – 583.

Richards C. M. and Moore W. S. (1996), «A phylogeny for the African treefrog family Hyperoliidae based on mitochondrial rDNA», Mol. Phyl. Evol., 5, 522 – 532.

Rowley J. J. L., Le D. T. T., Hoang H. D., Dau V. Q., and Cao T. T. (2011), «Two new species of Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Vietnam», Zootaxa, 3098, 1 – 20.

Sarkar A. K. and Ray S. (2006), «Amphibia», in: Alfred J. R. B. (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh. Part 1, Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta.

Smith M. A. (1924), «New tree-frogs from Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula», Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1924, 225 – – 234.

Smith M. A. (1926), «Spolia Mentawia»: Reptiles and amphibians», Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 9, 18, 76 – 81.

Smith M. A. (1930), «The Reptilia and Amphibia of the Malay Peninsula. A supplement to G. A. Boulenger’s Reptilia and Batrachia, 1912», Bull. Raffles Mus., 3, 1 – 149.

Stuart B. L. and Heatwole H. F. (2004), «A new Philautus (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae) from northern Laos», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 10, 17 – 21.

Taylor E. H. (1962), «The amphibian fauna of Thailand», Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43, 265 – 599.

Tschudi J. J. V. (1838), Classification der Batrachier mit Berücksichtigung der fossilen Thiere dieser Abtheilung der Reptilien, Petitpierre, Neuchâtel.

Velho N. and Noronha A. (2015), Reptiles and Amphibians of Pakke Tiger Reserve, web-version https://commons. Reptiles_and_amphibians_of_ Pakke_ Tiger_Reserve.df#file)

Wang S. and Xie Y. (eds.) (2009), China Species Red List, Higher Education Press, Beijing, China.

Wolf S. (1936), «Revision der Untergattung Rhacophorus (ausschliesslich der Madagaskar-Formen)», Bull. Raffles Mus., 12, 137 – 217.

Wrobel M. (2004), Elsevier’s Dictionary of Amphibians: in Latin, English, German, French, Italian, Elsevier Science.

Ye C. Y., Fei L., Hu S.-Q. (1993), Rare and Economic Amphibians of China, Sichuan Publishing House of Science and Technology, Chengdu, China [in Chinese].

Zhao E. M. and Adler K. (1993), Herpetology of China: Contributions to Herpetology 10, Soc. for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.

Zhao E. M. (ed.) (1998), China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals: Amphibians and Reptiles, Science Press, Beijing, China.

Zhao E. M., Chang H. W., Zhao H., and Adler K. (2000), «Revised checklist of Chinese amphibian and reptilian», Sichuan J. Zool., 19(3), 196 – 207 [in Chinese with English title].



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email