Anurans of the Tagay Locality (Baikal Lake, Russia; Miocene): Bombinatoridae, Hylidae, and Ranidae

Elena V. Syromyatnikova


The Miocene (MN 5) locality of Tagay (Baikal Lake, Russia) yielded isolated bones of five anuran taxa: Bombina sp. (Bombinatoridae), Hyla sp. (Hylidae), Pelophylax sp. and Rana sp. (Ranidae), Bufo mirus (Bufonidae), the first four of which are described here. In Tagay anuran assemblage, Ranidae are dominant, whereas Hylidae and Bombinatoridae are extremely rare. The Tagay Bombina and Hyla represent the oldest records of these genera in Asia. The Tagay Bombina possibly belongs to an ancestral Bombina lineage, which originated in Asia by the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The Tagay Hyla could be an early member of the East Palearctic species-group of Hylidae that originated during the early Miocene in Asia. Pelophylax sp. and Rana sp. are among the earliest records of the lineages of green and brown frogs, respectively, in Asia.


Anura; Neogene; Miocene; Pelophylax; Rana; Bombina; Hyla; Siberia; Asia

Full Text:



Bailon S. (1991), Amphibiens et reptiles du Pliocène et du Quaternaire de France et d’Espagne: mise en place et évolution des faunes. Ph. D. Thesis, Université de Paris VII, Paris.

Bailon S. (1999), «Différenciation ostéologique des Anoures (Amphibia, Anura) de France», in: J. Desse, N. Desse-Berset (eds.), Fiches d’ostéologie animale pour l’archéologie. Série C. Varia, Centre de Recherches Archéologiques-CNRS, Valbonne.

Bailon S. (2000), «Amphibiens et reptiles du Pliocène terminal d’Ahl al Oughlam (Casablanca, Maroc)», Geodiversitas, 22(4), 539 – 558.

Bendukidze O. G. and Chkhikvadze V. M. (1976), «Preliminary results of study on fossil amphibians, reptiles and birds from Turgay and Ustyurt», Bull. Moscow Soc. Naturalists. Geol. Ser., 5, 156.

Blain H.-A. (2009), «Contribution of the palaeoherpetofauna (Amphibia & Squamata) to the knowledge of climate and landscape evolution from Late Pliocene to Middle Pleistocene of Spain», Treb. Mus. Geol. Barcelona, 16, 39 – 170.

Bogachev V. V. (1927), «Fauna of diatomitic deposits in Akhalkalaki Basin», Izv. Azerb. Gos. Univ., 6(1), 121 – 126 [in Russian].

Böhme G. (1977), «Zur Bestimmung quartдrer Anuren Europas an Hand von Skelettelementen», Wissenschaft. Zeitschr. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin Math.-Nat. Reihe, 36, 283 – 300.

Böhme G. and Günther R. (1979), «Osteological studies in the European water frogs Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae and Rana «esculenta» (Anura, Ranidae)», Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 55, 203 – 215.

Böhme M. (2001), «The oldest representative of a brown frog (Ranidae) from the Early Miocene of Germany», Acta Palaeontol. Polonica, 46(1), 119 – 124.

Böhme M. and Ilg A. (2003), fosFARbase, (accessed: March 2016).

Brandy L. D. (1979), «Donnees sur la succession des faunes de rongeurs du Neogene de l’Afghanistan», Comptes Rend. Hebdomad. Seances L’acad. Sci. Ser. D. Sci. Naturelles, 2893, 269 – 270.

Chkhikvadze V. M. (1984), «Review of fossil urodeles and anurans of the USSR», Izv. AN GrSSR Ser. Biol., 10(1), 5 – 13 [in Russian].

Chkhikvadze V. M. (1985), «Preliminary results of the study of Tertiary amphibians and squamate reptiles of the Zaisan Basin», in: Abstrs. of the 6th All-Union Conf. «Problems of Herpetology», Tashkent, September 18 – 20, 1985, pp. 234 – 235 [in Russian].

Claessens L. P. A. M. (1997), «On the herpetofauna of some Neogene eastern Mediterranean localities and the occurrence of Palaeobatrachus and Bufo (Amphibia, Anura) in the lower Miocene of Turkey», J. Vertebr. Paleontol., 17(3, Suppl.), 39A.

Danilov I. G., Syromyatnikova E. V., Klementiev A. M., Sizov A. V., Martynovich N. V., Zelenkov N. V., Sychevskaya E. K., and Tesakov A. S. (2012), «New data on Miocene vertebrates of Tagay locality (Ol’khon, Lake Baikal)», in: Modern Paleontology: Classical and New Methods. Proc. of the 9th All-Russian Sci. School for Young Scientists in Paleontology in Moscow, Russia, pp. 19 – 20 [in Russian].

Daxner-Höck G., Böhme M., and Kossler A. (2013), «New data on Miocene biostratigraphy and paleoclimatology of Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, Siberia)», in: X. Wang, L. J. Flynn, and M. Fortelius (eds.), Fossil Mammals of Asia: Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology, Columbia Univ. Press, New York, pp. 508 – 519.

Filippov A. G., Erbajeva M. A., and Sytchevskaya E. K. (2000), «Miocene deposits in Aya cave near Baikal», Geol. Geofiz., 41(5), 755 – 764 [in Russian].

Folie A., Rana R. R., Rose K. D., Sahni A., Kumar K., Singh L., and Smith T. (2013), «Early Eocene frogs from vastan lignite mine, Gujarat, India», Acta Palaeontol. Polonica, 58, 511 – 524.

Gleed-Owen C. P. (2000), «Subfossil records of Rana cf. lessonae, Rana arvalis and Rana cf. dalmatina from Middle Saxon (c. 600 – 950 AD) deposits in eastern England: evidence for native status», Amphibia–Reptilia, 21(1), 57 – 65.

Gutieva-Chkareuli N. V. (2002), «Remnants of Mongolian toad from Pavlodar Priyrtyshje», in: Zoological investigations in Kazakhstan: State of Art and Perspectives. Int. Sci. Conf., Almaty, pp. 196 – 198 [in Russian].

Hoek Ostende van den L., Gardner J. D., van Bennekom L., Alçiçek M. C., Murray A., Wesselingh F. P., Alçiçek H., and Tesakov A. (2015), «Ericek, a new Pliocene vertebrate locality in the Çameli Basin (southwestern Anatolia, Turkey)», Palaeobiol. Palaeoenv., 95, 305 – 320.

Hodrová M. (1981), «Plio-Pleistocene frog fauna from Hajnáčka and Ivanovce, Czechoslovakia», Věst. ÚÚG, 56, 215 – 224.

Hodrová M. (1987), «Lower Miocene frogs from the Dolnice locality in the Cheb Basin (Czechoslovakia)», Acta Univ. Carolinae, 2, 97 – 115.

Holman J. A. (1992). «Hyla meridionalis from the late Pleistocene (last interglacial age: Ipswichian) of Britain», Br. Herpetol. Soc. Bull., 41, 12 – 14.

Holman J. A. and Harrison D. L. (1999), «Rana (Amphibia: Ranidae) from the Upper Eocene (MP17a) Hordle Cliff locality, Hampshire, England», Palaeovertebrata, 28(1), 47 – 51.

Iskakova K. N. (1969), «Fossil Amphibia of Priytryshje», Izv. AN KazSSR. Ser. Biol., 1, 48 – 52 [in Russian].

Ivanjev L. I. and Khosatzky L. I. (1970), «Remains of Neogene reptiles and amphibians of the Ol’khon Island of Baykal Lake», Izv. Vost.-Sib. Otd. Geograf. Obshch. SSSR, 67, 153 – 158 [in Russian].

Klementiev A. M. and Sizov A. V. (2015), «New record of anchithere (Anchitherium aurelianense) in the Miocene of Eastern Siberia, Russia», Russ. J. Theriol., 14(2), 133 – 143.

Kordikova E. G. (1998), «Herpetofauna in the Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic of Kazakhstan», Vestnik Kazakh. Gos. Univ., 6, 61 – 109 [in Russian].

Li Ch., Lin Y., Gu Y., Hou L., Wu W., and Qiu Z. (1983), «The Aragonian vertebrate fauna of Xiacaowan, Jiangsu. 1. A brief introduction to the fossil localities and preliminary report on the new material», Vertebr. Paleontol., 21(4), 312 – 327 [in Chinese with English summary].

Li J.-T., Wang J.-S., Nian H.-H., Litvinchuk S. N., Wang J., Li Y., Rao D.-Q., and Klaus S. (2015), «Amphibians crossing the Bering Land Bridge: Evidence from holarctic treefrogs (Hyla, Hylidae, Anura)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 87, 80 – 90.

Liu Y.-H. (1961), «A new species of Rana from Shansi», Vertebr. PalAsiatica, 12, 340 – 345.

Logachev N. A., Lomonosova T. K., and Klimanova V. M. (1964), Cenozoic Deposits of Irkutsk Amphitheater, Nauka, Moscow [in Russian].

Malakhov D. V. (2004), «Toads (Anura; Bufonidae) from the Middle Miocene in the Turgay Depression (Central Kazakhstan)», Biota, 5, 41 – 46.

Malakhov D. V. (2005), «The early Miocene herpetofauna of Ayakoz (Eastern Kazakhstan)», Biota, 6(1 – 2), 29 – 35.

Nicolas P. J. (1978), «Un nouveau gisement de Vertébrés dans le Chersonien: Kutchuk-Tchekmedjè Ouest (Thrace turque)», Compt. Rendus l’Acad. Sci., 287, 455 – 458.

Nokariya H. (1983), «Comparative osteology of Japanese frogs and toads for paleontological studies (I): Bufo, Hyla, Microhyla and Bombina», Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Ser. C, 9(1), 23 – 40.

Okada Y. (1937), «A fossil frog from Japan», Chishitsugaku Zasshi, 44, 243 – 245.

Pabijan M., Wandycz A., Hofman S., Węcek K., Piwczyński M., and Szymura J. M. (2013), «Complete mitochondrial genomes resolve phylogenetic relationships within Bombina (Anura: Bombinatoridae)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 69(1), 63 – 74.

Paicheler J. C., Broin F. de, Gaudant J., Mourer-Chauviré C., Rage J. C., and Vergnaud-Grazzini C. (1978), «Le bassin lacustre Miocène de Bes-Konak (Anatolie — Turquie): Géologie et introduction a la Paléontologie des Vertébrés», Geobios, 11(1), 43 – 65.

Pokalitov A. G. (2012), Stratigraphy Cenozoic Eurasia. Paleontological Study, Izd. IrGTU, Irkutsk [in Russian].

Prasad G. V. R. and Rage J. C. (1995), «Amphibians and squamates from the Maastrichtian of Naskal (India)», Cretaceous Res., 16, 95 – 107.

Rage J. C. (1984), «Are the Ranidae (Anura, Amphibia) known prior to the Oligocene?» Amphibia–Reptilia, 5(3 – 4), 281 – 288.

Rage J. C. and Danilov I. G. (2008), «A new Miocene fauna of snakes from eastern Siberia, Russia. Was the snake fauna largely homogenous in Eurasia during the Miocene?» C. R. Palevol., 7, 383 – 390.

Rage J. C. and Ginsburg L. (1997); «Amphibians and squamates from the early Miocene of Li Mae Long; Thailand: The richest and most diverse herpetofauna from the Cainozoic of Asia»; in: Z. Roček and S. Hart (eds.); Herpetology97; Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic; Prague; pp. 167 – 168.

Rage J. C. and Roček Z. (2003); «Evolution of anuran assemblages in the Tertiary and Quaternary of Europe; in the context of palaeoclimate and palaeogeography»; Amphibia– Reptilia 24; 133 – 167.

Rage J. C. and Şen Ş. (1976), «Les amphibians et les reptiles du Plioène superior de Çalta (Turquie)», Gèol. Méditerr., III(2), 127 – 134.

Rage J. C., Gupta S. S., and Prasad G. V. R. (2001), «Amphibians and squamates from the Neogene Siwalik beds of Jammu and Kashmir, India», Paläontol. Zeitschr., 75(2), 197 – 205.

Ratnikov V. Yu. (2001), «Osteology of Russian toads and frogs for paleontological researches», Acta Zool. Cracov, 44, 1 – 23.

Ratnikov V. Yu. (2003), «Identification of fire-bellied toads (Bombina, Discoglossidae) in the elements of the skeleton for the paleontological studies», Sovr. Probl. Gerpetol. Toksinol., 6, 91 – 101 [in Russian].

Ratnikov V. Yu. (2009), «Fossil remains of modern amphibian and reptile species as the material for studying of their areas history», Trudy NII Geol. Voronezh. Gos. Univ., 59, 1 – 91 [in Russian].

Riabinin A. N. (1928), «A fossil frog from Transcaucasia», Ezhegod. Sess. Ross. Paleontol. Obshch., 7, 87 – 97 [in Russian].

Roček Z. (1980), «A contribution to the systematics of European ranid frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae) on the basis of the incrassatio frontoparietalis», Věstník Českoslov. Spol. Zool., 44, 219 – 229.

Roček Z. (2013), «Mesozoic and Tertiary Anura of Laurasia», Palaeobiodiv. Palaeoenv., 93, 397 – 439.

Roček Z. and Rage J.-C. (2000), «Tertiary Anura of Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and Australia. Chapter 15», in: R. L. Carroll and H. Heatwole (eds.), Amphibian Biology — Paleontology. Vol. 4, Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton (Australia), pp. 1334 – 1389.

Roček Z., Dong L., Pøikryl T., Sun C., Tan J., and Wang Y. (2011), «Fossil frogs (Anura) from Shanwang (Middle Miocene; Shandong Province, China)», Geobios, 44, 499 – 518.

Rückert-Ülkümen N. (1980), «Fossile Fische und Frösche aus dem höheren Miozän von Zentralanatolien», Ege Ьniv. Fen Fakьlt. Ilmо Rap. Ser., 249, 1 – 14.

Rückert-Ülkümen N. (2003), «Fossil ranids from Miocene deposits of Central Anatolia», Istanbul Üniv. Mühendislik Yerbilimleri Dergisi, 16(2), 71 – 74.

Rückert-Ülkümen N., Böhme M., Reichenbacher B., Heissig K., Witt W., and Bassler B. (2002), «Die Fossilführung des kontinentalen Neogens (Ober-Miozän — Unter-Pliozän) von Develiköy (Manisa, Türkei)», Mitt. Bayer. Staatssamm. Paläontol. Histor. Geol. Vol., 42, 51 – 74.

Rummel M. (1998), Die Cricetiden aus dem Mittel- und Ober-Miozän der Türkei. Documenta Naturae, p. 123.

Sanchiz B. (1998), «Salientia», in: P. Wellnhofer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology. Part 4, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, pp. 1 – 275.

Sanchíz B. and Młynarski M. (1979), «Remarks on the fossil anurans from the Polish Neogene», Acta Zool. Cracov, 24, 175 – 188.

Sanchíz B. and Roček Z. (1996), «An overview of the anuran fossil record», in: R. C. Tinsley and H. R. Kobel (eds.), The Biology of Xenopus, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 317 – 328.

Sanchíz B. and Schleich H. H. (1986), «Erstnachweis der Gattung Bombina (Amphibia: Anura) in Untermiozan Deutschland», Mitt. Bayer. Staatssamm. Paläontol. Hist. Geol., 26, 41 – 44.

Sanchíz B., Schleich H. H., and Esteban M. (1993), «Water frogs (Ranidae) from the Oligocene of Germany», J. Herpetol., 27(4), 486 – 489.

Schlosser M. (1924), «Tertiary vertebrates from Mongolia», Palaeontol. Sinica. C, 1(1), 1 – 126.

Špinar Z. V. (1980), «Fossile Raniden aus dem oberen Pliozän von Willershausen (Niedersachsen)», Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. B, 53, 1 – 53.

Stöck M., Dufresnes Ch., Litvinchuk S. N., Lymberakis P., Biollay S., Berroneau M., Borzée A., Ghali K., Ogielska M., and Perrin N. (2015), «Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: Postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 65, 1 – 9.

Syromyatnikova E. V. (2014), «The first record of Salamandrella (Caudata: Hynobiidae) from the Neogene of Russia», Russ. J. Herpetol., 21(3), 217 – 220.

Syromyatnikova E. V. (2015), «A new species of Bufo (Amphibia, Anura) from the Miocene of Russia», Russ. J. Herpetol. 22(4), 281 – 288.

Tesakov A. S. and Lopatin A. S. (2015), «First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Ol’khon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia)», Dokl. RAN Biol. Nauki, 460, 23 – 26 [in Russian].

Tesakov A. S., Syromyatnikova E. V., Danilov I. G., Klementiev A. M., Sizov A. V., Zelenkov N. V., Sychevskaya E. K., Lopatin A. V., van den Hoek Ostende L. W., Martynovich N. V., Volkova N. V., and Obraztsova E. M. (2014), «Progress in the study of Miocene vertebrates of Tagay (Olkhon Island, lake Baikal)», in: Paleontology of Central Asia and adjacent regions: 45 years of the joint Russian-Mongolian Paleontological Expedition, Izd. Paleontol. Inst. RAN, Moscow, pp. 75 – 77 [in Russian].

Tleuberdina P. A., Volkova V. S., Lushczaeva T. T., Lychev G. F., Pita O. M., Tjutkova L. A., and Chkhikvadze V. M. (1993), «Vertebrates fauna of Kalkaman (Pavlodar Priirtyshe)», Mater. Ist. Fauny Flory Kazakhstana, 12, 132 – 157 [in Russian]

Veith M., Kosuch J., and Vences M. (2003), «Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 26(2), 310 – 327.

Venczel M., Gardner J. D., Codrea V. A., Csiki-Sava Z., Vasile Ş., and Solomon A. A. (2016), «New insights into Europe’s most diverse Late Cretaceous anuran assemblage from the Maastrichtian of western Romania», Palaeobiodiv. Palaeoenv., 96(1), 61 – 95.

Vislobokova I. (2004), «New species of Orygotherium (Palaeomerycidae, Ruminantia) from the Early and Late Miocene of Eurasia», Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 106A, 371 – 385.

Wessels W. (1996), «Myocricetodontidae from the Miocene of Pakistan», Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. V. Wetensch., 99(3 – 4), 253 – 312

Young C. C. (1936), «A Miocene fossil frog from Shantung», Bull. Geol. Soc. China, 15, 189 – 193.

Zelenkov N. V. (2015), «A primitive grebe (Aves, Podicipedidae) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Lake Baikal, Olkhon Island)», Paleontol. J., 49(5), 521 – 529.

Zykin V. S. (2012), Stratigraphy and Evolution of Environments and Climate During Late Cenozoic in the Southern West Siberia, Izd. Inst. Geol. Mineral RAN im. V. S. Soboleva, Novosibirsk [in Russian].



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email