Feeding Habits of Spot-Bellied Salamander Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi (Nesterov, 1916) Based on Examination of Three Populations from Zagros Mountains, Western Iran (Caudata: Salamandridae)

Farnaz Bozorgi, Bahram H. Kiabi, Haji Gholi Kami


Feeding habits in three populations of fire salamander, Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi have been studied at Zagros Mountains in western part of Iran, Kurdistan and Kermanshah provinces. Adult individuals underwent stomach flushing were applied to in June and September 2014. All three populations consumed 107 prey items from nine taxa categories. Inorganic elements and vegetal maters also were found in stomach contents. The results show that Coleoptera and Homoptera hold highest and lowest percentage abundance food contents of all populations respectively. There are significance differences between the feeding habits of three populations. The most consumption and highest feeding diversity were registered in the steep slope of valley with permanent slow water fall, surrounded with humid soil that covered with carious plants so the salamanders can feed massively in this area. Also results show that the larger salamander (distinguished with SVL) consumed a significantly higher diversity and amount of prey items than smaller individuals so the adult size can affects S. i. semenovi hunting behavior. The findings also suggest that fire salamander has seasonal fluctuation in food items both by the number and variation. In June, salamanders consumed significantly higher diversity and amount of prey items. There is a straight relationship between gender of salamanders and their food habits. Females consumed significantly higher diversity and amount of prey items. Our study highlights the importance of preserving aquatic habitats as well as terrestrial areas because some feeding items (Gastropoda and Trichoptera) spend their life cycle in water.


Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi, feeding habit, prey items, invertebrate, Zagros Mountains, Iran.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30906/1026-2296-2018-25-1-11-16


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