Keeping, Breeding, and Maintenance of Zooculture of the Ladakh Toad, Bufotes latastii (Boulenger, 1882)

Kseniya A. Matushkina, Artem A. Kidov, Spartak N. Litvinchuk


In this paper we present results of laboratory reproduction of the Ladakh toad (Bufotes latastii) for three generations. Two pairs of animals, which were collected in April of 2013 in Jammu and Kashmir (India), became founders of a laboratory population. The first female gave offspring four times, while the second only once. The number of eggs in clutches obtained from the first female was 6804 – 10149 and from the second was 4080 eggs. Males, which were born in laboratory, started to vocalize at the age of 3 – 4 months after metamorphosis and at the age of one year successfully reproduced. Females become mature at the two-year age only. Thus, B. latastii is a fast-growing and early-maturing species. The number of eggs in clutches of 2-year-old laboratory females ranged from 31 to 6420 eggs (n = 28) and 3-year-old females from 19 to 6859 eggs (n = 21). Clutches were single- or double-row strings. The average thickness of egg strings was 3.2 – 5.9 mm. The diameter of eggs was 0.8 – 1.9 mm. The duration of embryonic development (until separation of pre-larvae from egg strings) was 2 – 5 days. The total body length of pre-larvae was 2.0 – 4.3 mm. The first larvae that started swimming and feeding were observed within 2 – 3 days after separation of pre-larvae from egg strings. The body length of larvae at the time of start of exogenous feeding was 2.9 – 4.3 mm and the length of tail was 1.6 – 6.3 mm. The total duration of embryogenesis was 4 – 8 days, larval development was 86 – 125 days, and overall development was 90 – 127 days.


reproduction; fecundity; maturity; development; Anura; Bufonidae

Full Text:



Betto-Colliard C., Sermier R., Litvinchuk S., Perrin N., and Stöck M. (2015), «Origin and genome evolution of polyploid green toads in Central Asia: evidence from microsatellite markers», Heredity, 114(3), 300 – 308.

Betto-Colliard C., Hofmann S., Sermier R., Perrin N., and Stöck M. (2018), «Profound genetic divergence and asymmetric parental genome contributions as hallmarks of hybrid speciation in polyploid toads», Proc. R. Soc. B, 285, 20172667, DOI: 10.6084/m9.

Borkin L. J. and Litvinchuk S. N. (2013), «Amphibians of the Palearctic: taxonomic composition», Tr. Zool. Inst. RAN, 317(4), 494 – 541 [in Russian].

Drozdova L. S., Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Kornienkov P. I., Kudryavtseva N. A., Pashina M. M., Afrin K. A., and Blinova S. A. (2015), «Technical payback of live feed stuff and the growth in youngs of the Latast’s toad, Bufotes latastii (Boulenger, 1882) in artificial conditions», Vestn. Mosk. Gos. Obl. Univ. Estestv. Nauki, 3, 25 – 32 [in Russian].

Dubois A. and Martens J. (1977), «Sur les crapauds du groupe de Bufo viridis (Amphibiens, Anoures) del’Himalaya Occidental (Cachemire et Ladakh)», Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 102(4), 459 – 465.

Ficetola G. F., Crottini A., Casiraghi M., and Padoa-Schioppa E. (2010), «New data on amphibians and reptiles of the Northern Areas of Pakistan: distribution, genetic variability and conservation issues», North-West. J. Zool., 6(1), 1 – 12.

Grosjean S. and Dubois A. (2001), «Description of advertisement calls of five Bufo species (Bufonidae) from south and south-east Asia», Hamadryad, 26(2), 247 – 258.

Gruber U. (1981), «Notes on the herpetofauna of Kashmir and Ladakh», Br. J. Herpetol., 6(5), 145 – 150.

Khan M. S. (2006), The Amphibians and Reptiles of Pakistan, Malabar.

Kidov A. A., Matushkina K. A., Litvinchuk S. N., Blinova S. A., Afrin K. A., and Kovrina E. G. (2016), «The first captive breeding of the Lataste’s toad, Bufotes latastii (Boulenger, 1882) in laboratory conditions», Curr. Stud. Herpetol., 16(1 – 2), 20 – 26 [in Russian].

Kuzmin S. L. (2013), The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union, Sofia.

Litvinchuk S. N., Rosanov J. M., Usmanova N. M., Borkin L. J., Mazanaeva L. F., and Kazakov V. I. (2007), «Variation of microsatellites BM224 and Bcal7 in populations of green toads (Bufo viridis complex) with various nuclear DNA content and ploidy», Cell Tissue Biol., 1(1), 65 – 79.

Litvinchuk S. N., Borkin L. J., Skorinov D. V., Mazepa G. A., Pasynkova R. A., Dedukh D. V., Krasikova A. V., and Rosanov J. M. (2012), «Unusual triploid speciation in green toads Bufo viridis group in High-altitude Asia», in: R. V. Novitskiy et al. (eds.), Problems of Herpetology, Minsk, pp. 160 – 165 [in Russian].

Litvinchuk S. N., Borkin L. J., Skorinov D. V., Pasynkova R. A., and Rosanov J. M. (2016), «Natural polyploidy in amphibians», Vestn. St. Petersburg Gos. Univ. Biol., 3, 77 – 86 [in Russian].

Litvinchuk S. N., Skorinov D. V., Mazepa G. O., and Borkin L. J. (2018), «Distribution of the endemic of Western Himalaya – the Lataste’s toad, Bufotes latastii (Boulenger, 1882)», Alytes, 36(1 – 4), 314 – 327.

Matushkina K. A., Kidov A. A., and Seryakova A. A. (2017), «Captive breeding of larvae of narrowly distributed triploid toads, Bufotes baturae (Stцck, Schmid, Steinleinet Grosse, 1999) with the use of complete feeds for aquarium fish», Vestn. Tambov. Gos. Univ. Estestv. Tekhn. Nauki, 22(5 – 1), 960 – 964 [in Russian].

Sahi D. N., Abrol B., and Verma A. K. (1996), «Ecological notes on the herpetofauna of Ladakh region in J&K State (India)», Cobra, 26, 1 – 9.

Stöck M., Steinlein C., Lamatsch D. K., Schartl M., and Schmid M. (2005), «Multiple origins of tetraploid taxa in the Eurasian Bufo viridis subgroup», Genetica, 124(2), 255 – 272.

Stöck M., Moritz C., Hickerson M., Frynta D., Dujsebayeva T. N., Eremchenko V. K., Macey J. R., Papenfuss T. J., and Wake D. B. (2006), «Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 41(2), 663 – 689.

Verma A. K., Sahi D. N., and Verma K. (1995), «The amphibian fauna of Jammu and Kashmir State, India», Cobra, 20, 2 – 6.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email