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Morphological and Ecological Correlates of Anuran Tadpoles in Scrub and Subtropical Pine Forests

Sidra Ikram, Muhammad Rais, Sumbul Gill, Waseem Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed, Ayesha Akram, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Atique Akhter


We recorded tadpoles of eight anuran species from subtropical scrub and pine forests (District Rawalpindi and Islamabad Capital Territory, Pakistan). These include Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Duttaphrynus stomaticus, Microhyla nilphamariensis, Euphlyctis spp., Minervarya spp., Allopaa hazarensis, Nanorana vicina, and Hoplobatrachus tigerinus. Our results showed that the forest type featuring scrub vegetation, low elevation and warmer climate (day air temperature >30°C, day water temperature >28°C) had more species richness (six of the eight recorded species) while the subtropical pine forest featuring relatively low air (<16°C) and water (<14°C) temperatures and higher elevation had relatively higher anuran endemism. The Indus Valley Toad is an abundant species throughout scrub forest. Changes in climate resulting in increased temperatures in pine forests could negatively impact endemic species by encouraging the spread of species adapted for warmer temperatures.


endemism; invasive species; Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii); Acacia; amphibians

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