A New Species of Rhacophorus Genus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorinae) from Van Ban District, Lao Cai Province, Northern Vietnam

Ivan I. Kropachev, Nikolai L. Orlov, Hoa Thi Ninh, Tao Thien Nguyen


We describe a new species of the Rhacophorus genus, which differs from all species known in Asia by the combination of characters. It strongly differs also from small and middle-sized species of Rhacophorus sensu lato: Rhacophorus calcaneus Smith, 1924, Leptomantis cyanopunctatus (Manthey et Steiof, 1998), Rhacophorus hoabinhensis Nguyen, Pham, Nguyen, Ninh et Ziegler, 2017, Rhacophorus hoanglienensis Orlov, Lathrop, Murphy et Ho, 2001, Zhangixalus jarujini (Matsui et Panha, 2006), Rhacophorus laoshan Mo, Jiang, Xie et Ohler, 2008, Rhacophorus pardalis Günther, 1858, Rhacophorus rhodopus Liu et Hu, 1960, Rhacophorus robertingeri Orlov, Poyarkov, Vassilieva, Ananjeva, Nguyen, Sang, and Geissler, 2012, Leptomantis robinsonii (Boulenger, 1903), Rhacophorus spelaeus Orlov, Gnophanxay, Phimminith, and Phomphoumy, 2010, Rhacophorus translineatus Wu, 1977, Rhacophorus turpes Smith, 1940, Rhacophorus vampyrus Rowley, Le, Thi, Stuart et Hoang, 2010, Rhacophorus viridimaculatus Ostroshabov, Orlov et Nguyen, 2013 by having brown color with two green dorsolateral stripes starting at the groin level and connecting through the distal part of eyelid with green triangle on the head, slender body and head, lower ratio HW/HL 0.86, lower HW/SVL 0.28 and lower ratio HL/SVL 0.32.


amphibians; rhacophorid frogs; Rhacophorus sp. nov.; Northern Vietnam

Full Text:



Alberch P. and Gale E. A. (1985), «A developmental analysis of an evolutionary trend: digital reduction in amphibians», Ecology, 39, 8 – 23.

Averyanov L. V., Phan Ke Loc, Nguyen Tien Hiepm, and Do Tien Doan (2003), «Highland vegetation and flora of Van Ban District, Lao Cai Province in northern Vietnam», Turczaninowia, 6(4), 47 – 86.

Bain R. H. and Nguyen T. Q. (2004), «Herpetofaunal diversity of Ha Giang Province in northeastern Vietnam, with description of two new species», Am. Mus. Novitates, 3453, 1 – 42.

Bain R. H., Nguyen Q. T., and Doan K. V. (2009), «A new species of the genus Theloderma Tschudi, 1838 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from northwestern Vietnam», Zootaxa, 2191, 58 – 68.

Bordoloi S., Bortamuli T., and Ohler A. (2007), «Systematics of the genus Rhacophorus (Amphibia, Anura): identity of red-webbed forms, and description of a new species from Assam», Zootaxa, 1653, 1 – 20.

Bourret R. (1937), «Notes herpétologiques sur I’lndochine Française. XIV. Les Batrachiens de la Collection du Laboratoire des Sciences naturelles de l’Université. Descriptions de quinze especes ou varietes nouvelles», Ann. Bull. Gen. Instr. Publ. Hanoi, 4, 5 – 56.

Bourret R. (1942), «Les Batraciens de l’Indochine», Mém. l’Inst. Océanogr. de l’Indochine, Issue 6, 1 – 517.

Brown W. C. and Alcala A. C. (1994), «Philippine frogs of the family Rhacophoridae», Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 48, 185 – 220.

Chan K. O. and Grismer L. L. (2010), «Re-assessment of the Reinwardt’s Gliding Frog, Rhacophorus reinwardtii (Schlegel 1840) (Anura: Rhacophoridae) in Southern Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia and its re-description as a new species», Zootaxa, 2505, 40 – 50.

Chan K. O., Grismer L. L., and Brown R. M. (2018), «Comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny of Old World tree frogs (Anura: Rhacophoridae) reveals taxonomic uncertainties and potential cases of over- and underestimation of species diversity», Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 127, 1010 – 1019.

Chou W., Lau M. W., and Chan B. P. L. (2007), «A new treefrog of the genus Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Hainan Island, China», Raffles Bull. Zool., 55(1), 157 – 165.

Dovzikov A. E. (1965a), Geological Map of Vietnam 1:500000, Main Geological Department of DRV, Hanoi.

Dovzikov A. E. (1965b), Geology of the North Vietnam. Description for geological map of the North Vietnam 1:500000, Main Geological Department of DRV, Hanoi [in Russian].

Duellman W. E. (2015), Marsupial Frogs Gastrotheca & Allied Genera, Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore.

Duellman W. E. and Trueb L. (1986), Biology of Amphibians, The John Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore and London.

Fei L., Hu S. and Ye C., Huang Y. (2009), Fauna Sinica. Amphibia. Vol. 2. Anura, Science Press, Beijing [in Chinese].

Fei L., Ye C., and Jiang J. (2010), Colored Atlas of Chinese Amphibians, Sichuan Publishing Group, Sichuan, China [in Chinese].

Fridland B. M. (1961), Nature of the North Vietnam, Izd. AN SSSR, Moscow [in Russian].

Frost D. R. (2019), Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html (accessed 10 June 2019). American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

Glaw F. and Vences M. (1997), «Anuran eye colouration: definitions, variation, taxonomic implications and possible functions», in: W. Bohme, W. W. Bischoff, and T. Ziegler (eds.), Herpetologia Bonnensis. SEH Proceedings, Bonn, Germany, pp. 125 – 138.

Guayasamin J. M., Bustamante M. R., Almeida-Reinoso D., and Funk W. C. (2006), «Glass frogs (Centrolenidae) of Yanayacu Biological Station, Ecuador, with the description of a new species and comments on centrolenid systematics», Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 147, 489 – 513.

Inger R. F., Orlov N. L., and Darevsky I. S. (1999), «Frogs of Vietnam: A report on new collections», Fieldiana Zool. New. Ser., 92, 1 – 46.

Jiang D., Jiang K., Ren J., Wu J., and Li J. (2019), «Resurrection of the Genus Leptomantis, with Description of a New Genus to the Family Rhacophoridae (Amphibia: Anura)», Asian Herpetol. Res., 10(1), 1 – 12.

Li J.-T., Che J., Bain R. H., Zhao E.-M., and Zhang Y.-P. (2008), «Molecular phylogeny of Rhacophoridae (Anura): a framework of taxonomic reassignment of species within the genera Aquixalus, Chiromantis, Rhacophorus, and Philautus», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 48, 302 – 312.

Li J.-T., Che J., Murphy R. W., Zhao J., Zhao E.-M., Rao D.-Q., and Zhang Y.-P. (2009), «New insights to the molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the Rhacophoridae (Amphibia: Anura) based on five nuclear and three mitochondrial genes, with comments on the evolution of reproduction», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 53, 509 – 522.

Li J.-T., Liu J., Chen Y.-Y., Wu J.-W., Murphy R. W., Zhao E.-M., Wang Y.-Z., and Zhang Y.-P. (2012), «Molecular phylogeny of treefrogs in the Rhacophorus dugritei species complex (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with descriptions of two new species», Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 165, 143 – 162.

Li J. T., Li Y., Klaus S., Rao D. Q., Hillis, D M., Zhang Y. P. (2013), «Diversification of Rhacophorid frogs provides evidence for accelerated faunal exchange between India and Eurasia during the Oligocene», Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110(9), 3441 – 3446.

Liem S.-S. (1970), «The morphology, systematics, and evolution of the Old World treefrogs (Rhacophoridae and Hyperoliidae)», Fieldiana Zool., 57, 1 – 145.

Liu C. C. and Hu S. Q. (1960), «Preliminary report of Amphibia from southern Yunnan», Acta Zool. Sinica, 11, 508 – 538.

Matsui M. and Orlov N. L. (2004), «A new species of Chirixalus from Vietnam (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Zool. Sci., 21, 671 – 676.

Matsui M. and Panha S. (2006), «A new species of Rhacophorus from Eastern Thailand (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Zool. Sci., 23(5), 477 – 481.

Mo Y.-M., Jiang J.-P., Xie F., and Ohler A. (2008), «A new species of Rhacophorus (Anura: Ranidae) from China», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 11, 85 – 92.

Mo Y. M., Chen W. C., Liao X. W, and Zhou S. C. (2016), «A new species of the genus Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern China», Asian Herpetol. Res., 7(3), 139 – 150.

Nguyen Q. T., Hendrix R., Böhme W., Vu N. T., and Ziegler T. (2008), «A new species of the genus Philautus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Truong Son Range, Quang Binh Province, central Vietnam», Zootaxa, 1925, 1 – 13.

Nguyen T. T., Pham C. T., Nguyen T. Q., Ninh H. T., and Ziegler T. (2017), «A New Species of Rhacophorus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Vietnam», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 8(4), 221 – 234.

O’Connell K. A., Smart U., Smith E. N., Hamidy A., Kurniawan N., and Fujita M. K. (2018), «Within-island diversification underlies parachuting frog (Rhacophorus) species accumulation on the Sunda shelf», J. Biogeogr., 2018, 1 – 12.

Ohler A., Marquis O., Swan S., and Grosjean S. (2000), «Amphibian biodiversity of Hoang Lien Nature Reserve (Lao Cai Province, northern Vietnam) with description of two new species», Herpetozoa, 13(1), 71 – 787.

Ohler A. and Delorme M. (2006), «Well known does not mean well studied: morphological and molecular support for existence of sibling species in the Javanese gliding frog Rhacophorus reinwardtii (Amphibia, Anura)», Elsevier C. R. Biol., 329, 86 – 97.

Orlov N. L. (2008), «Description of a new species of Rhacophorus genus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Kon Cha Rang area (Gia Lai Province, Vietnam)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 15(2), 133 – 140.

Orlov N. L., Lathrop A., Murphy R. W., and Ho T. C. (2001), «Frogs of the family Rhacophoridae (Anura: Amphibia) in the northern Hoang Lien mountains (Mount Fan Si Pan, Sa Pa district, Lao Cai province), Vietnam», Russ. J. Herpetol., 8(1), 17 – 44.

Orlov N. L., Ho T. C., and Nguyen Q. T. (2004), «A new species of the genus Philautus from central Vietnam (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 11(1), 51 – 65.

Orlov N. L. and Ho T. C. (2005), «A new species of Philautus from Vietnam (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 12(2), 135 – 142.

Orlov N. L., Dutta S. K., Ghate H. V., and Kent Y. (2006), «New species of Theloderma from Kon Tum Province (Vietnam) and Nagaland State (India) (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 13(2), 165 – 175.

Orlov N. L. and Ananjeva N. B. (2007), «Amphibians of South-East Asia», Tr. Zool. Inst. RAN, 309 [in Russian].

Orlov N. L., Nguyen N. S., and Ho T. C. (2008), «Description of a new species and new records of Rhacophorus genus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) with the review of amphibians and reptiles diversity of Ghu Yang Sin National Park (Dak Lak Province, Vietnam)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 15(1), 67 – 84.

Orlov N. L., Gnophanxay S., Phimminith T., and Phomphoumy K. (2009), «A new species of Rhacophorus genus (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorinae) from Khammouan Province, Lao PDR», Russ. J. Herpetol., 16(4), 295 – 303.

Orlov N. L., Poyarkov A. N., Vassilieva A. B., Ananjeva N. B., Nguyen T. T., Sang N. V., and Geissler P. (2012), «Taxonomic notes on rhacophorid frogs (Rhacophorinae: Rhacophoridae: Anura) of southern part of Annamite Mountains (Truong Son, Vietnam), with description of three new species», Russ. J. Herpetol., 19(1), 23 – 64.

Ostroshabov A. A., Orlov N. L., and Tao Nguyen T. T. (2013), «Taxonomy of frogs of genus Rhacophorus of «hoanglienensisorlovi» complex», Russ. J. Herpetol., 20(4), 301 – 324.

Pan T., Zhang Y., Wang H., Wu J., Kang X., Qian L., Li K., Zhang Y., Chen J., Rao D. Q., Jiang J. P., and Zhang B. (2017), «A new species of the genus Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Dabie Mountains in East China», Asian Herpetol. Res., 8(1), 1 – 13.

Rowley J. J. L., Le T. T. D., Thi A. D., Stuart B. L., and Hoang D. H. (2010), «A new frog of the genus Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern Vietnam», Zootaxa, 2727, 45 – 55.

Rowley J. J. L., Dau Q. V., Nguyen T. T., Cao T. T., and Nguyen S. V. (2011a), «A new species of Gracixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) with a hyperextended vocal repertoire from Vietnam», Zootaxa, 3125, 22 – 38.

Rowley J. J. L., Le T. T., Hoang D. D. H., Dau Q. V., and Cao T. T. (2011b), «Two new species of Theloderma (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Vietnam», Zootaxa, 3098, 1 – 20.

Rowley J. J. L., Thi A. D., Hoang D. H., and Le T. T. D. (2012), «A New Species of Large Flying Frog (Rhacophoridae: Rhacophorus) from Lowland Forests in Southern Vietnam», J. Herpetol., 46(4), 480 – 487.

Savage J. M. and Heyer W. R. (1967), «Variation and distribution of the tree-frog genus Phyllomedusa in Costa Rica, Central America», Beitr. Neotrop. Fauna, 5, 111 – 131.

Savage J. M. and Heyer W. R. (1997), «Digital webbing formulae for anurans: a refinement», Herpetol. Rev., 28, 131.

Smith M. A. (1924), «New tree-frogs from Indo-China and the Malaya Peninsula», Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1924, 225 – 234.

Smith M. A. (1940), «The amphibians and reptiles obtained by Mr. Ronald Kaulback in Upper Burma», Rec. Indian Mus., 42, 465 – 486.

Stuart B. L. and Heatwole H. F. (2004), «A new Philautus (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae) from northern Laos», Asiatic Herpetol. Res., 10, 17 – 21.

Takhtajan A. (1978), The Floristic Regions of the World, Nauka, Leningrad [in Russian].

Taylor E. H. (1962), «The Amphibian fauna of Thailand», Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43(8), 265 – 299.

Ziegler T. and Köhler J. (2001), «Rhacophorus orlovi sp. n., ein neuer Ruderfrosch aus Vietnam (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Sauria, 23, 37 – 46.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30906/1026-2296-2019-26-6-325-334


  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email sales@ivis.ru