Age Structure and Growth in the Zamda Toad, Bufotes zamdaensis (Anura, Bufonidae)

Sergey M. Lyapkov, Artem A. Kidov, Irina V. Stepankova, Kirill A. Afrin, Spartak N. Litvinchuk


The paper provides the first data about age structure and growth of the Zamda toad, Bufotes zamdaensis (Boulenger, 1882), from the Himachal Pradesh State (India). The study of age structure of toads was carried out using skeletochronology. The minimal and maximal ages in males of B. zamdaensis were 4 and 7 years, respectively, with mean age of 5.4 years. The majority of males (60%) were 5 years old. The age in females ranged from 5 to 9 years with mean value of 6.1 years. The majority of females (71%) were 5 – 6 years old. Males of B. zamdaensis can reach maturation after four winterings and females after five winterings. Unlike closely related species B. latastii, the growth rate in both sexes does not decrease significantly after the 1st and 2nd wintering and remains high after the 3rd and 4th wintering.


the Zamda toad; Bufotes zamdaensis; age; growth; skeletochronology

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