Ecology of the Himalayan Newt (Tylototriton verrucosus) in Darjeeling Himalayas, India

Sergius L. Kuzmin, Ritwik Dasgupta, É. M. Smirina


In Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India, Tylototriton verrucosus was found in 10 localities. It lives in rice fields, tea gardens, meadows underlying the shores of pools, at the edge of woods. Reproduction in March – May (sometimes up to September). Female parental care and tendency to terrestrial breeding were observed. Metamorphosis is commonly in August – October, but sometimes the larvae overwinter. This might be the result of a prolonged reproductive period. The age of animals was determined by counting annual layers in phalange transverse sections. The age of sexual maturation is supposed to be 3 – 5 (mostly 4) years. Maximum age estimated 11 years old. The duration of hibernation is 4 – 5 months. The larvae prey mainly upon small crustaceans and aquatic insects, aquatic adults prey on insects, earthworms, amphibian ova and larvae. Data on natural enemies and parasites are presented. Conservation problems are discussed.


Amphibia; Caudata; Tylototriton verrucosus; distribution; reproduction; age determination; conservation

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