A New Ictidosuchid Karenites ornamentatus (Theriodontia) from the Upper Permian of the Kotel’nich Locality in the Kirov Region

Leonid P. Tatarinov

Abstract


The new ictidosuchid has small trituberculate postcanines which testifies to its to insectivores. The skull is sculptured in some places, the postorbital arch is complete, the parietal crest is high, and the parietal foramen is absent. The coronoid process does not practically rise above the edge of the jaw. The carotid and Vidian canals are absent. The basipterygoid processes articulate only with the epipterygoids, the pterygoids are connected by a suture with the basisphenoid rostrum. The mesethmoid olfactory concha are ossified. The stapes is connected with the quadratum only by its edge, the major part of the distal end of the stapes is free and when the mouth is closed the ossicle contacts with the internal flank of the lower jaw, formed by the prearticulare and the articulare. On the lower edge of the dentale at its posterior end there is a concave sculptured platform; it is possible that this part of the jaw in a lying animal leaned on a substrate and functioned as the beginning of an additional system of sound transmission from the substrate through the lower aaw directly to the stapes. The palatal teeth are represented by elongated denticulate crests on the palatine, anteromedial and anterolateral groups on the pterygoids, and dentition on the transverse processes of the pterygoids.

Keywords


theriodonts; letidosuchids; Upper Permian; European Russia; morphology; skull

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barghusen H. R. (1968), «The lower jaw of cynodont (Reptilia, Therapsida) and the evolutionary origin of mammal-like adductor jaw musculature», Postilla Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Yale Univ., No. 116, 3 – 49.

De Beer G. R. and Barrington E. J. W. (1939), «The segmentation and chondrification of the skull of the duck», Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. B, 223(9), 411 – 467.

Boonstra L. D. (1954), «A scaloposaurid from the Tapinocephalus zone», Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 12-7(5), 153 – 157.

Boonstra L. D. (1969), «The fauna of the Tapinocephalus zone (Beaufort beds of the Karroo)», Ann. South Afr. Mus., 56(1), 3 – 73.

Brink A. S. (1960), «On some small therocephalians», Palaeontol. Afr., 7, 155 – 182.

Brink A. S. (1965), «A new ictidosuchid (Scaloposauria) from the Lystrosaurus zone», Palaeontol. Afr., 9, 129 – 138.

Brink A. S. (1982), «Illustrated bibliographical cataloque of the Synapsida», Dept. Miner. Energy Affairs Geol. Surv., 10(1).

Brink A. S. (1987), «Illusrated bibliographical catalogue of the Sinapsida», Dept. Miner. Energy Affairs. Geol. Surv., 10(2).

Broom R. (1932), The Mammal-Like Reptiles of South Africa, Whiterby, London, p. 376.

Broom R. and Robinson J. T. (1948), «On some new types of small carnivorous mammal-like reptiles», in: Spec. Publ. Roy. Soc. South Africa, Cape Town, R. Broom Commemor. Vol., pp. 29 – 44.

Carroll R. L. (1987), Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, W. H. Freeman, New York, p. 698.

Crompton A. W. (1955), «A revision of the Scaloposauridae with special reference to kinetism in this family», Navors. Nasion. Mus. Bloemfontein., 1(7), 149 – 183.

Crompton A. W. (1963), «On the lower jaw of Diarthrognathus and the origin of the mammalian lower jaw», Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 140(8), 697 – 750.

Crompton A. W. and Hotton N. (1967), «III. Functional morphology of the masticatory apparatus of two dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida)», Postilla Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Yale Univ., No. 109, 3 – 51.

Findlay G. H. (1967), «On the scaloposaurid skull of Oliviera parringtoni Brink, with a note on the origin of hair», Paleontol. Afr., 11, 47 – 59.

Hilemae K. and Jenkins F. A., Jr. (1969), «The anatomy and internal architecture of the muscles of mastication in Didelphis marsupials», Postilla Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Yale Univ., No. 140, 1 – 49.

Huene F. von (1980), «Die Theriodontien des ostafrikanischen Ruhuhu-Gebiezes in der Tübinger Sammlung», Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläontol. Abh., 92, 47 – 136.

Huene F. von (1956), Paläontologie und Phylogenie der Niederen Tetrapoden, VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, p. 716.

Jarvik E. (1950), Basic Structure and Evolution of Vertebrates, Vol. 10, Acad. Press, London – New York, p. 575.

Kemp T. S. (1972), «The jaw articulation and musculature of the whaitsiid Therocephalia», in: K. A. Joysey and T. S. Kemp (eds.), Studies in Vertebrate Evolution, Essays Presented to Dr. F. R. Parrington, FRS, Winchester Press, New York, pp. 213 – 230.

Kemp T. S. (1982), Mammal-Like Reptiles and the Origin of Mammals, Acad. Press, London – New York, p. 363.

Kermack K. A., Mussett F., and Rigney H. W. (1981), «The skull of Morganucodon», Zool. J. Linn. Soc. London, 71(1), 1 – 158.

Lehman J. P. (1961), «Bauriamorpha», in: J. Piveteau (ed.), Traite de Paleontologie, Vol. 6(1), Masson et Cie, Paris, 246 – 270.

Mendrez Ch. H. (1972), «On the skull of Regisaurus jakobi, a new genus and species of Bauriamorpha Watson et Romer, 1956 (Scaloposauria Boonstra, 1953), from the Lystrosaurus zone of South Africa», in: K. A. Joyseyy and T. S. Kemp (eds.), Studies in Vertebrate Evolution, Essays presented to Dr. F. R. Parrington, FRS, Winchester Press, New York, pp. 191 – 212.

Mendrez Ch. H. (1974), «A new specimen of Promoscherhynchus platyrhinus Brink, 1954 (Moschorhinidae) from the Daptocephalus zone (Upper Permian) of South Africa», Palaeontol. Afr., 17, 69 – 85.

Mendrez Ch. H. (1975), «Principales variations du palais chez les thérocephales sud-africans (Pristerosauria et Scaloposauria) au cours du Permien supérieur et du Trias inférieur», Coll. Int. Centre Nat. Rech. Sci., No. 218, Paris, 4 – 9 juin 1973: «Problémes actuels de paléontologie et évolution des vertébres», Paris, pp. 379 – 408.

Mendrez Ch. H. (1979), «Nouvelle étude du crãne du type de Scaloposaurus conssstrictus Oxen, 1876, specimen jeune, Therocephalia, Scaloposauria, Scaloposauridae, de la zone а Cistecephalus (Permien supérieur) d’Afrique australe», Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. C., 4.1(3), 155 – 201.

Romer A. S. (1956), Osteology of the Reptiles, Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, p. 772.

Shishkin M. A. (1973), «The morphology of the early Amphibia and some problems of the lower tetrapod evolution», in: Trudy Palaeontol. Inst. AN SSSR, 137, 262 [in Russian].

Tatarinov L. P. (1974), «Theriodonts of the USSR», Trudy Palaeontol. Inst. AN SSSR, 145, 252 [in Russian].

Tatarinov L. P. (1976), Morphological Evolution of the Theriodonts and General Problems of Phylogenety, Nauka, Moscow, p. 258 [in Russian].

Tatarinov L. P. (1993), «On the characters of the crossopterygian fishes in the structure of the skull of the Upper Permian therocephalian Hexacynodon purlinensis (Reptilia, Theriodontia)», Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 332(1), 124 – 126 [in Russian].

Tatarinov L. P. (1994), «On the unusual pecularities in morphology of the head in therocephalian Hexacynodon purlinensis», Russ. J. Herpetol., 1(1), 5 – 16.

Tatarinov L. P. (1995), «A new Upper Permian therocephalian Viatkosuchus sumini», Paleontol. Zh., No. 1 [in Russian].

Tatarinov L. P. (1995), «The front cervical vertebra and the occipital articulation in therocephalians and scaloposaurians», Paleontol. Zh., (in print) [in Russian].

Watson D. M. S. and Romer A. S. (1956), «A classification of therapsid reptiles», Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll., 114(2), 35 – 89.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.