On the Dynamics of Population of Common Frog (Rana temporaria) in the North-West of Russia

A. P. Kutenkov, S. S. Mosiyash


Multiannual variations in number on stages of ova, metamorphosing juveniles, youngs of the year before hibernation, yearlings, and mature frogs in a large population of common frog, Rana temporaria, were studied in 1981 – 1997 in the “Kivach” State Nature Reserve (southern Karelia, Russia). A method of estimating of the relative abundance was used to evaluate indices of number on each developmental stage. Many weather parameters were measured and phenological terms of setting in of different stages were recorded annually. In multiple regression, variation in abundance on preceding stage together with fluctuation of weather conditions determined from 56 to 93% of multiannual variance of the abundance of frogs on different stages. Graphic comparisons of observed data with calculated values indicate that regression models were found simulate the multiannual number variations well and few divergences are in result of influence of the extreme values of some established weather factors which were not include in equations. Regulation of the Common frog population dynamics in natural environment is discussed.


Amphibia; Ranidae; developmental stages; multiannual number variations; population regulation; weather conditions

Full Text:



Bannikov A. G. (1948), «Of the fluctuation of number of tailess amphibians», Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 61(1), 131 – 134 [in Russian].

Berger L. and Rybacki M. (1993), «Growth and maturity of brown frogs, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria, in central Poland», Alytes, 11(1), 17 – 24.

Berven K. A. (1981), «Mate choice in the wood frog Rana sylvatica», Evolution (USA), 35(4), 707 – 722.

Berven K. A. (1990), «Factors affecting populations fluctuations in larval and adult stages of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica)», Ecology, 71(4), 1599 – 1608.

Blausten A. R. and Wake D. B. (1990), «Declining amphibian populations: a global phenomenon?», Trends Ecol. Evol., 5(7), 203.

Borisov A. A. (1948), Climates of the USSR, Uchpedgiz, Moscow [in Russian].

Caughley G. (ed.) (1977), Analysis of Vertebrate Populations, Wiley, London.

Chugunov Ju. D. (1966), «On polyphasic rhytm of daily activity of the common frogs», Zool. Zh., 45(11), 1692 – 1697 [in Russian].

Draper N. R. and Smith H. (1981), Applied Regression Analysis, Finansy i Statistika, Moscow [Russian translation].

Elmberg J. (1990), «Long term survival, length of breeding season, and operational sex ratio in a boreal population of common frog, Rana temporaria», Can. J. Zool., 68(1), 121 – 127.

Garanin V. I. (1971), «A contribution to the question of ammphibians and reptiles number dynamics», in: Natural Resources of Volzhsko-Kamsky Region. Vol. 3, Kazan’, pp. 79 – 93 [in Russian].

Gibbons M. M. and McCarthy T. K. (1986), «The reproductive output of frogs Rana temporaria (L.) with particular reference to body size and age», J. Zool., A209(4), 579 – 593.

Heran I. (1982), «Results of investigations in spatial activity of the common frog, Rana temporaria L., 1758, in Krkonose National Park», Acta Mus. Nat. Prague, B38(4), 239 – 263.

Heyer W. R., Donelly M. A., McDiarmid R. W., et al. (1994), Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity: Standard Methods for Amphibians, Smitsonian Inst. Press, Washington.

Ishchenko V. G. and Ledentsov A. V. (1985), «Ecological aspects of postmetamorphic growth of Rana arvalis», in: Ecological Aspects of Animal Growth and Development, Sverdlovsk, pp. 11 – 21 [in Russian].

Ishchenko V. G. and Ledentsov A. V. (1987), «Influence of environmental conditions on the dynamics of age structure in populations of the Moor Frog», in: Influence of Environmental Conditions on the Dynamics of Structure and Number of Animal Population, Sverdlovsk, pp. 40 – 51 [in Russian].

Jorgensen C. B. (1981), «Ovarian cycle in a temperate zone frog, Rana temporaria, with special reference to factors determining number and size of eggs», J. Zool., 195(4), 449 – 458.

Koskela P. and Pasanen S. (1975), «The reproductive biology of the female Common Frog, Rana temporaria L., in northern Finland», Aquilo. Ser. Zool., 16, 1 – 12.

Kutenkov A. P. (1995), «On the population dynamics of the common frog (Rana temporaria) in the northern part of its range», Mem. Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn., 71(3 – 4), 98 – 102.

Kutenkov A. P. (1998), «On the role of weather in population dynamics of the common frog (Rana temporaria) in the north», Ross. Zh. Ékol., No. 1, 49 – 54 [in Russian].

Kutenkov A. P., Panarin A. E., and Shklyarevich F. N. (1990), «Reproductive ecology of tailess amphibians of Karelia and Kola Peninsula», in: Terrestrial Vertebrates in State Natural Reserves of the North of the European Part of RSFSR, Moscow, pp. 54 – 70 [in Russian].

Kutenkov A. P. and Perekhrestova M. V. (1985), «Distribution and utilization of territory beyond the season of reproduction in Rana temporaria», Zool. Zh., 64(3), 393 – 399 [in Russian].

Kutenkov A. P. and Tsellarius N. B. (1988), «Characteristics of common frog (Rana temporaria) activity in Karelia», Zool. Zh., 67(7), 1038 – 1045 [in Russian].

Liepa I. J. and Pospelova G. E. (1983), «Study on structure of an influence of the factors in ecological forecasting», in: Human and Biosphere. No. 8, Izd. MGU, Moscow, pp. 125 – 133 [in Russian].

Loman J. (1990), «Frog density and distribution in a heterogenous landscape — a modelling approach», Ekologia (ČSFR), 9(4), 353 – 360.

Lyapkov S. M. (1986), «Factors influencing variability in size and dates of coming aland in youngs of the year of Rana temporaria and R. arvalis», Zool. Zh., 65(1), 88 – 98 [in Russian].

Lyapkov S. M. (1988), «Survival rate in youngs of the year of brown frogs (Rana temporaria and R. arvalis) at the beginning of their terrestrial life», Zool. Zh., 67(10), 1519 – 1529 [in Russian].

Lyapkov S. M. (1995), «Factors determining mortality of juveniles in Rana temporaria and Rana arvalis in the beginning of their life at the land», Zool. Zh., 74(1), 92 – 106 [in Russian].

Lyapkov S. M. (1996) «The influence of predators of brown frogs during and after metamorphosis», in: Advances in Amph. Research in the Former Soviet Union, No. 1, Moscow, pp. 149 – 159 [in Russian].

Lyapkov S. M. and Severtsov A. S. (1994), «The influence of initial number of generations on the number of postlarval individuals, their body size and the dates of metamorphosis in common frogs (Rana temporaria) and moor frogs (R. arvalis)», Zool. Zh., 73(1), 97 – 111 [in Russian].

Pechmann J. H. K., Scott D. E., Semlitsch R. D., Caldwell J. P., Vitt L. J., and Gibbons J. W. (1991), «Declining amphibian populations: the problem of separating human impacts from natural fluctuations», Science, 253(23), 892 – 895.

Ryser J. (1986), «Altersstruktur, Geschlechterverhaltnis und Dynamik einer Grasfrosch-Population (Rana temporaria L.) aus des Scweiz», Zool. Anz., 217(3/4), 234 – 251.

Ryser J. (1988), «Determination of growth and maturation in the common frog, Rana temporaria, by sceletochronology», J. Zool., 216(4), 673 – 685.

Seigel R. A. (1983), «Natural survival of eggs and tadpoles of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica», Copeia, 1983(4), 1096 – 1098.

Severtsov A. S. (1993), «On the use of the route censusing for estimation of abundance of common frog, Rana temporaria», Zool. Zh., 72(3), 138 – 143 [in Russian].

Severtsov A. S. and Surova G. S. (1979), «Effect of predators on the population of Rana temporaria tadpoles», Zool. Zh., 58(9), 1374 – 1379 [in Russian].

Severtsov A. S. and Surova G. S. (1989), «Number dynamics of the brown frogs in Moscow region», in: Amphibians and Reptiles of Moscow Region, Moscow, pp. 110 – 120 [in Russian].

Shaldybin S. L. (1981), «Winterings and numbers of amphibians and reptiles of Lazo State Nature Reservation», in: Herpetological Investigations in Siberia and the Far East, Leningrad, pp. 123 – 124 [in Russian].

Shwarz S. S., Pyastolova O. A., Dobrinskaya L. A., and Runkova G. G. (1976), Group Effect in Water Animals and Chemical Ecology, Nauka, Moscow [in Russian].

Smirina É. M. (1980), «On growth and survival of common frogs (Rana temporaria) during the first years of life», Zool. Zh., 59(12), 1831 – 1841 [in Russian].

Surova G. S. (1990), «The press of predators on larvae of Rana arvalis in nature», Zool. Zh., 69(10), 86 – 97 [in Russian].

Surova G. S. and Severtsov A. S. (1988), «The influence of predators on brown frog larvae in the experiment», Zool. Zh., 67(10), 1509 – 1518 [in Russian].

Terentjev P. V. (1950), The Frog, Sovetskaya Nauka, Moscow [in Russian].

Ulanova E. S. and Zabelin V. N. (1990), Methods of Correlation and Regression Analysis in Agrometeorology, Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad [in Russian].

Wilbur H. M. (1980), «Complex life cycles», Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 11, 67 – 92.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30906/1026-2296-2000-7-2-123-134


  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email sales@ivis.ru