Reproduction in the Invasive Lizard, Carlia ailanpalai (Squamata: Scincidae) from Oceania

Stephen R. Goldberg, Fred Kraus


We examined the reproductive cycle of Carlia ailanpalai in the Mariana Islands by a histological examination of gonadal material. Reproduction appears to occur year-round in this locality. The mean clutch size was 2.0 (n = 20), and females may produce multiple clutches in the same year. The smallest reproductively active male measured 42 mm SVL, and the smallest reproductively active females measured 43 mm SVL. The collection of neonates at different times of the year suggests a wide period of egg production. In view of the prolonged period of reproduction, the potential of transmitting Salmonella sp. to humans and the deleterious effects of C. ailanpalai on native lizards, colonization by this species should be closely monitored and discouraged.


alien skink; invasion; Marianas; Micronesia; Pacific islands

Full Text:



Alcala A. C. and Brown W. C. (1967), «Population ecology of the tropical scincoid lizard, Emoia atrocostata, in the Philippines», Copeia, 1967, 596 – 604.

Auffenberg W. and Auffenberg T. (1989), «Reproductive patterns in sympatric Philippine skinks (Sauria: Scincidae)», Bull. Florida State Mus. Biol. Sci., 34, 201 – 247.

Baker J. R. (1947), «The seasons in a tropical rain-forest. Part 6. Lizards (Emoia)», J. Linn. Soc. Zool., 41, 243 – 247.

Buden D. W. (2009), «Carlia ailanpalai (Reptilia: Scincidae): An invasive species of lizard in the Federated States of Micronesia», Pacif. Sci., 63, 243 – 251.

Fritts T. H. and Rodda G. (1998), «The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: a case history of Guam», Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29, 113 – 140.

Goldberg S. R. and Kraus F. (2008a), «Notes on reproduction of Carlia eothen and Lamprolepis smaragdina (Squamata: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea», Herpetofauna, 38, 110 – 115.

Goldberg S. R. and Kraus F. (2008b), «Notes on reproduction in five species of Emoia (Squamata: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea», Salamandra, 44, 54 – 58.

Haddock R. L., Nocon F. A., Santos E. A., and Taylor T. G. (1990), «Reservoirs and vehicles of Salmonella infection on Guam», Environ. Int., 16, 11 – 16.

McCoid M. J. (1995), «Carlia cf. fusca: (NCN). Behavior», Herpetol. Rev., 26, 35.

McCoid M. J. (1997), Interactions of Carlia cf. fusca (Scincidae) with the Herpetofauna of Guam. Ms. Thesis, Texas A & M University Kingsville, Kingsville, TX, USA.

McCoid M. J., Henke S. E., and Hensley R. A. (2005), «Husbandry and captive reproduction in Carlia ailanpalai (Scincidae)», Herpetol. Rev., 36, 292 – 293.

Presnell J. K. and Schreibman M. P. (1997), Humason’s Animal Tissue Techniques. Fifth Edition, The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore.

Rodda G. H. and Fritts T. H. (1992) «The impact of the introduction of the colubrid snake, Boiga irregularis on Guam’s lizards», J. Herpetol., 26, 166 – 174.

Rodda G. H., Fritts T. H., and Reichel J. D. (1991), «The distributional patterns of reptiles and amphibians in the Mariana Islands», Micronesica, 24, 195 – 210.

Rodda G. H., Fritts T. H., McCoid M. J., and Campbell III E. W. (1999a), «An overview of the biology of the brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) a costly introduced pest on Pacific Islands», in: G. H. Rodda, Y. Sawai, D. Chiszar, and H. Tanaka (eds.), Problem Snake Management: the Habu and the Brown Treesnake, Combstock Publ., Ithaca, NY, USA, pp. 44 – 80.

Rodda G. H., McCoid M. J., Fritts T. H., and Campbell III E. W. (1999b), «Population trends and limiting factors in Boiga irregularis», in: G. H. Rodda, Y. Sawai, D. Chiszar, and H. Tanaka (eds.), Problem Snake Management: the Habu and the Brown Treesnake, Combstock Publ., Ithaca, NY, USA, pp. 236 – 253.

Schwaner T. D. (1980), «Reproductive biology of the lizards on the American Samoan Islands», Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 86, 1 – 53.

Zug G. R. (2004), «Systematics of the Carliafusca’ lizards (Squamata: Scincidae) of New Guinea and nearby islands», Bishop Mus. Bull. Zool., 5, 1 – 83.

Zug G. R., Barber M. M., and Dudley J. C. (1982), «Gonadal histology and reproduction in Carlia bicarinata (Scincidae, Sauria, Reptilia) of the Port Moresby Area, Papua New Guinea», Herpetologica, 38, 418 – 425.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email