Inter-Species Variation in Activities of Lysosomal Cathepsins During Tail Regression in the Tadpoles of Three Sympatric Anurans

Pravati Kumari Mahapatra, Sahayog Narayan Jamdar, Cuckoo Mahapatra, Sushil Kumar Dutta, Padmanabhkurup Harikumar


The three sympatric anurans, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Bufonidae), Polypedates maculatus (Rhacophoridae), and Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Dicroglossidae) show a remarkable variation in their larval period as well as in the duration of tail regression. As different lysosomal enzymes are actively involved in the resorption of the tail tissue and the muscle fibers constitute major part of tail, specific activity of four lysosomal cathepsins (B, H, L and D) in the pre-regressing and regressing tails of these three anurans were investigated. A negative correlation between the duration of tail regression and specific activity of each lysosomal cathepsin in the tail tissues has been described in this paper.


lysosomal cathepsins; tail regression; anuran tadpoles

Full Text:



Barrett A. J. and Heath M. F. (1977), in: J. T. Dingle (ed.), Lysosome: A Laboratory Handbook, North Holland Publishing Co. Amsterdam, pp. 19 – 147.

Barrett A. J. and Kirschke H. (1981), «Cathepsin B, Cathepsin H and Cathepsin L», in: Methods in Enzymology, Acad. Press, New York, pp. 553 – 561.

Brown D. D. and Cai L. (2007), «Amphibian metamorphosis», Devel. Biol., 306(1), 20 – 33.

Brown D. D., Wang Z., Furlow J. D., Kanamori A., Schwartzman R. A., Remo B. F., and Pinder A. (1996), «The thyroid hormone-induced tail resorption program during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis», Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 93, 1924 – 1929.

Das B., Cai L., Carter M. G., Piao Y-L., Sharov A. A., Ko M. S., and Brown D. D. (2006), «Gene expression changes at metamorphosis induced by thyroid hormone in Xenopus laevis tadpoles», Devel. Biol., 291, 342- 355.

Duellman W. E. and Trueb L. (1985), Biology of Amphibians, McGrawHill Book Comp..

Dutta S. K. and Mohanty-Hejmadi P. (1978), «Life history and pesticide susceptibility of embryonic stages of the Indian bullfrog Rana tigerina Daudin», Indian J. Exp. Biol., 16(6), 727 – 729.

Dutta S. K., Mishra S., and Rath S. (2001), «Breeding and development of Polypedates maculatus (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Pranikee J. Zool. Soc. Orissa, Special volume, 121 – 134.

Elinon R. P., Remo B., and Brown D. D. (1999), «Novel structural elements identified during tail resorption in Xenopus laevis metamorphosis: lessons from tailed frogs», Devel. Biol., 215(2), 243 – 252.

Fujimoto K., Nakajima K., and Yaoita Y. (2006), «One of the duplicated matrix metalloproteinase-9 genes is expressed in regressing tail during anuran metamorphosis», Devel. Growth Different., 48, 223 – 241.

Gilbert L. I. and Frieden E. (1981), Metamorphosis: A Problem in Developmental Biology. 2nd Edition, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 139 – 176.

Gomez K. A. and Gomez A. A. (1984), Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. 2nd Edition, Wiley Interscience Publication.

Ishizuya-Oka A., Hasebe T., and Shi Y-B. (2010), «Apoptosis in amphibian organs during metamorphosis», Apoptosis, 15(3), 350 – 364.

Jung J. C., Leco K. J., Edwards D. R., and Fini M. E. (2002), «Matrix metalloproteinases mediate the dismantling of mesenchymal structures in the tadpole tail during thyroid hormone-induced tail resorption», Devel. Dynamics, 223, 402 – 413.

Junko S. and Shiro H. (1979), «Changes in Cathepsin D activity in the tail of Rana catesbeiana larvae during spontaneous metamorphosis», Doubutsugaku zasshi, 88(2), 116 – 121.

Kerr J. F. R., Harmon B., and Searle J. (1974), «An electron microscope study of cell deletion in the anuran tadpole tail during spontaneous metamorphosis with special reference to apoptosis of striated muscle fibers», J. Cell Sci., 14, 571 – 585.

Mahapatra C. and Mahapatra P. K. (2007), «Tail regression in tadpoles of Bufo melanostictus», Pranikee J. Zool. Soc. Orissa, 24, 85 – 96.

Mahapatra C. and Mahapatra P. K. (2011), «Involvement of cathepsin D during tail regression in tadpoles of the common Indian tree frog, Polypedates maculatus (Anura: Rhacophoridae)», Acta Histochem., 113, 756 – 762.

Mahapatra C., Dutta S. K., and Mahapatra P. K. (2011), «Inter-populational difference in activity of acid phosphatase in the tails of the tadpoles of Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Anura: Bufonidae)», Russ. J. Herpetol., 18(2), 105 – 110.

Mahapatra P. K. and Mahapatra C. (2009), «The activity of acid phosphatase in the tail of the tadpoles of Polypedates maculatus», Manjari J. Sci. Social Sci., 1, 33 – 36.

Mahapatra P. K., Mohanty-Hejmadi P., and Chainy G. B. N. (2001), «Changes in oxidative stress parameters and acid phosphatase activity in the pre-regressing and regressing tail of Indian jumping frog Polypedates maculatus (Anura, Rhacophoridae)», Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, 130, 281 – 288.

Miller G. L. (1959), «Protein determination for large number of samples», Anal. Chem., 31, 964.

Mohanty-Hejmadi P. (1977), «Care and management of amphibian embryos», Prakruti Utkal Univ. J. Sci., 11, 81 – 87.

Mukai M., Obara M., and Yoshizato K. (1995), «Characterization of gene of anuran cathepsin D as a metamorphosis-associated enzyme», Devel. Growth Different., 37, 463 – 477.

Nieuwkoop P. D. and Faber J. (1956), Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (Daudin), North Holland Publishing, Amsterdam.

Sasaki K., Kinoshita T., Takahama H., and Watanabe K. (1988), «Cytochemical studies of hydrogen peroxide production in the tadpole tail of Rana japonica during metamorphic climax», Histochem. J., 20, 99 – 107.

Shi Y-B., Fu, L., Hsia S. C., Tomita A., and Buchholz D. (2001), «Thyroid hormone regulation of apoptotic tissue remodeling during anuran metamorphosis», Cell Res., 11(4), 245 – 252.

Tardy C., Codogno P., Autefage H., Levade T., and Andrieu-Abadie N. (2006), «Lysosomes and lysosomal proteins in cancer cell death (new players of an old struggle)», Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1765(2), 101 – 125.

Taylor A. C. and Kollros J. J. (1946), «Stages in the normal development of Rana pipiens larva», Anat. Rec., 94, 7 – 13.

Wang Z. and Brown D. D. (1993), «Thyroid hormone-induced gene expression program for amphibian tail resorption», J. Biol. Chem., 268, 16270 – 16278.

Weber R. (1967), The Biochemistry of Animal Development, Acad. Press, New York, pp. 227 – 301.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email