Population Sizes of Taurus Frog, Rana holtzi, in Two Different Localities, Karagöl and Eğrıgöl: New Estimations, Decline, and a Warning for their Conservation

Uğur Kaya, Eyup Başkale, İ. Ethem Çevik, Yusuf Kumlutaş, Kurtuluş Olgun


Various estimators of population size have been used for Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR) studies although some considered to have limitations and under- or over-estimations. Reliable and accurate monitoring and estimation is necessary for effective management of threatened species in Turkey. We used three different CMR estimators, Petersen, Bailey (triple catch), and MARK to estimate the population size of critically endangered frog species, Rana holtzi in its terra typica, the Karagöl Lake vicinities, for 2003 and 2009 data. Of these estimators, Mark and Petersen give reliable and better results than the Bailey. At Karagöl, the Taurus frog population declined over a period of six years.We also estimated the population size of Eðrigöl locality, which is recently described but its low number was not given a hope for the species conservation.We also discussed the accuracy and limited use of Baileys (triple catch) by using our natural population data.


taurus frog; Rana holtzi; population size; conservation; endangered species

Full Text:



Baran İ., Balık S., Kumlutaş Y., Tok C. V., Olgun K., Durmuş H., Türkozan O., Ilgaz Ç., and İret F. (2001), «Rana holtzi (Toros Kurbağası) ‘nın biyolojik ve ekolojik yönden araştırılması ve koruma stratejisinin saptanması. IV [Research on biology and ecology of Rana holtzi (Taurus Frog) and determination of conservation strategy. IV]», in: Ulusal Ekoloji ve Çevre Kongresi [National Ecology and Environment Congress], Bodrum, pp. 213 – 218.

Baran İ., Ilgaz C., Kumlutaş Y., Olgun K., Avcı A., and İret F. (2007), «On new populations of Rana holtzi and Rana macrocnemis (Ranidae: Anura)», Tur. J. Zool., 31, 241 – 247.

Beebee T. J. C. and Griffiths R. A. (2005), «The amphibian decline crisis: a watershed for conservation biology», Biol. Conserv., 125, 271 – 285.

Blaustein A. R., Wake D. B., and Sousa W. P. (1994), «Amphibian declines: judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local and global extinctions», Conserv. Biol., 8(1), 60 – 71.

Cooch E. and White G. (eds.) (2007), Program MARK: a Gentle Introduction. 6th Edition, Available on-line at http://www.phidot.org/software/mark/docs/book

Finley D. J., White G. C., and Fitzgerald J. P. (2005), «Estimation of swift fox population size and occupancy rates in eastern Colorado», J. Wildlife Management, 69, 861 – 873.

Gascon C., Collins J. P., Moore R. D., Church D. R., McKay J. E., and Mendelson J. R. (eds.) (2007), Amphibian Conservation Action Plan. III, IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Green D. M. (2003), «The ecology of extinction: population fluctuation and decline in amphibians», Biol. Conserv., 111(3), 331 – 343.

Heyer W. R., Donnelly M., McDiarmid R. W., Hayek L. C., and Foster M. S. (1994), «Measuring and monitoring biological diversity», in: Standard Methods for Amphibians, Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington.

IUCN (2009), IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2, Available on-line at http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed February 2, 2010).

Kaya U., Çevik İ. E., and Erişmiş U. C. (2005), «Population status of the Taurus frog, Rana holtzi Werner (1898), in its terra typica: is there a decline?», Tur. J. Zool., 29, 317 – 319.

Kiesecker J. M., Blaustein A. R., and Belden L. K. (2001), «Complex causes of amphibian population declines», Nature, 410, 681 – 684.

Krebs C. J. (1989), Ecological Methodology, Harper Collins, New York.

Lancia R. A., Nichols J. D., and Pollock K. H. (1994), «Estimating the number of animals in wildlife populations», in: T. Bookhout (ed.), Research and Management Techniques for Wildlife and Habitats. 5th Edition, The Wildlife Society, Bethesda, MD, pp. 215 – 253.

Olgun K., Bozdoğan M., Öz M., Kaska Y., Kumlutaş Y., Kaya U., Avci A., Üzüm N., Yeniyurt C., and Akarsu F. (2008), «Rana holtzi», in: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2, Available on-line at http://www.iucnredlist.org (accessed January 19, 2010).

Pearl C. A., Adams M. J., and Leuthold N. (2009), «Breeding habitat and local population size of the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) in Oregon, USA», Northwestern Naturalist, 90(2), 136 – 147.

Reisinger R. R. and Karczmarski L. (2010), «Population size estimate of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in the Algoa Bay region, South Africa», Mar. Mamm. Sci., 26(1), 86 – 97.

Roff D. A. (1973), «On the accuracy of some mark-recapture estimators», Oecologia, 12(1), 15 – 34.

Sutherland W. J. (2000), The Conservation Handbook Research. Management and Policy, Blackwell Science, Oxford.

Veith M., Kosuch J., and Vences M. (2003), «Climatic oscillations triggered post-Messinian speciation of Western Palearctic brown frogs (Amphibia, Ranidae)», Mol. Phylogen. Evol., 26, 310 – 327.

White G. C. (2007), «Closed population estimation models and their extensions in Program MARK», Environ. Ecol. Stat., 15(1), 89 – 99.

Woodbury A. M. (1956), «Use of marking animals in ecological studies; marking amphibians and reptiles», Ecology, 37, 670 – 674.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30906/1026-2296-2010-17-4-247-250


  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email sales@ivis.ru