Changes in Osmotic Fragility of Erythrocytes of the Rainbow Lizard (Agama agama) Resulting from Swimming Exercise

O. I. Azeez, J. O. Oyewale


The effect of swimming exercise on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red blood cell (RBC) count, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in rainbow lizards (Agama agama) was determined.

The erythrocyte osmotic fragility was found to decrease in lizards that were allowed to rest for 30 min after removal from swimming exercise in water when compared with the control group that were not immersed in water. The fragility was also lower in lizards sampled immediately after water immersion.

No significant difference was however obtained in all the other erythrocyte parameters measured between the three groups of lizards.

The results suggest that mild stress challenged by aerobic exercise increases the osmotic resistance of erythrocytes in the rainbow lizard.


osmotic fragility; erythrocytes; lizard; swimming exercise

Full Text:



Aloni B. E. and Livine A. (1977), «The erythrocyte membrane site for the effect of temperature on osmotic fragility», Biochem. Biophys. Acta, 465, 46 – 53.

Bijlani R. L. (1997), Understanding Medical Physiology, Jaypee, New Delhi, India.

Chien S. and Lipowsky H. H. (1982), «Correlation of haemodynamics in macrocirculation and microcirculation», Int. J. Microcirc. Clin. Exp., 1, 351 – 356.

Davidson R. J. L. (1964), «Exertional haemoglobinuria. A report on three cases with studies on the haemolytic mechanism», J. Clin. Pathol., 17, 536 – 540.

Detweiler D. K. (1993), «Normal and pathological circulatory stresses», in: Melvin J. Swenson and William O. Reece (eds.), Duke’s Physiology of Domestic Animals. 11th Edition, Cornstock Publ. Ass. – Cornell Univ. Press, Ithaca, pp. 244 – 262.

Fich C. D., Chevli R., Kanjananggulpan P., Dutta P., Chevil K., and Chou A. C. (1983), «Intercellular ferriprotoporphyrin IX is a lytic agent», Blood, 62, 1165 – 1168.

Hanzawa K. and Watanabe S. (2000), «Changes in osmotic fragility of erythrocytes during exercise in athletic horses», J. Equine Sci., 11, 51 – 61.

Hanzawa K., Kubo K., Hiraga A., and Watanabe S. (1996), «Correlation between field exercise intensity and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in thoroughbred horses», in: Proc. of the 8th Animal Sci. Congr. of the Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies, Chiba Japan, Vol. 2, pp. 574 – 575.

Hanzawa K., Kubo K., Kai M., Hiraga A., and Watanabe S. (1995), «Effects of exercise on erythrocytes in normal and splenectomized thoroughbred horse», Equine Vet. J. Suppl., 18, 439 – 442.

Hanzawa K., Kubo K., Kai M., Hiraga A., and Watanabe S. (1999), «Effects of exercise on density and osmotic fragility of circulating red cells in normal and splenectomized Thoroughbred horses», J. Equine Sci., 10, 67 – 72.

Hanzawa K., Orihara K., Kubo K., Yamanobe A., Hiraga A., and Watanabe S. (1992), «Changes in plasma amino acid and inorganic ion concentration with maximum exercise in thoroughbred young horses», Jap. J. Equine Sci., 3, 157 – 162.

Harrison M. H. (1985), «Effects of thermal stress and exercise on blood volume in humans», Physiol. Rev., 65, 149 – 209.

Hiro T. (1982), «Studies on the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes influenced by metabolic acidosis», J. Physical Fitness, 31, 2979 – 2980.

Jain N. C. (1986), Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology. 4th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.

Oyewale J. O. (1994), «Further studies on osmotic resistance of nucleated erythrocytes: Observations with pigeon, peafowl, lizard and toad erythrocytes during changes in temperature and pH», J. Vet. Med., A41, 62 – 71.

Oyewale J. O. (1992), «Effects of temperature and pH on osmotic fragility of erythrocytes of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) and guinea fowl (Numida maleagris)», Res. Vet. Sci., 52, 1 – 4.

Senturk U. K., Gunduz F., Kuru O., Aktein M. R., Kipmewn D., Yalcin O., Bor-Kucukatay M., Yesilkaya A., and Baskurt O. K. (2001), «Exercise-induced oxidative stress affects erythrocytes in sedentary rats but not exercise-trained rats», J. Appl. Physiol., 91, 1999 – 2004.

Smith J. A., Kolbuch B. M., Gillam I., Telford R. D., and Weidemann M. J. (1995), «Changes in susceptibility of red blood cells to oxidative and osmotic stress following sub-maximal exercise», Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol., 70, 427 – 436.

Smith J. A. (1995), «Exercise training and red blood cell turn over», Sports Med., 19, 9 – 31.

Smith J. E., Erikson, A., and Debowes R. M. (1989), «Changes in circulating equine erythrocytes induced by brief high-speed exercise», Equine Vet. J., 21, 444 – 446.

Withers P. (1993), «Cutaneous water acquisition by the thorny devil, Moloch horridus: Agamidae», J. Herpetol., 27, 265 – 270.



  • There are currently no refbacks.