The Urodele Metamorphosis: Regulatory Mechanisms and Evolution

S. V. Smirnov


urodeles; metamorphosis; thyroid hormones; evolution

Full Text:



Alberch P. (1987), «Evolution of a developmental process: Irreversibility and redundancy in amphibian metamorphosis», in: Raff R. A. and Raff E. C. (eds.), Development as an Evolutionary Process, Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 23 – 46.

Boy J. A. and Sues H.-D. (2000), «Branchiosaurs: larvae, metamorphosis and heterochrony in temnospondyls and seymouriamorphs», in: Heatwole H. and Carroll R. L. (eds.), Amphibian Biology, Vol. 4, Surrey Beatty and Sons, Australia, pp. 1150 – 1197.

Flavin M., Duprat A. M., and Rosa J. (1982), «Effect of thyroid hormones on the switch from larval to adult hemoglobin synthesis in the salamander Pleurodeles waltlii», Cell. Differ., 11, 27 – 33.

Hanken J., Klymkowsky M. W., Summers C. H., Seufert D. W., and Ingebrigtsen N. (1992), «Cranial ontogeny in the direct-developing frog, Eleutherodactylus coqui (Anura: Leptodactylidae), analyzed using whole-mount immunohistochemistry», J. Morphol., 211, 95 – 118.

Lebedkina N. S. (1979), The Evolution of Amphibian Skull, Nauka, Moscow [in Russian].

Medvedeva I. M. (1975), The Olfactory Organ of Amphibians and Its Phylogenetic Significance, Nauka, Leningrad [in Russian].

Rose C. S. (1995a), «Skeletal morphogenesis in the urodele skull: I. Postembryonic development in the Hemidactyliini (Amphibia: Plethodontidae)», J. Morphol., 223, 125 – 148.

Rose C. S. (1995b), «Skeletal morphogenesis in the urodele skull: III. Effect of hormone dosage in TH-induced remodeling», J. Morphol., 223, 243 – 261.

Rose C. S. (1996), «An endocrine-based model for developmental and morphogenetic diversification in metamorphic and paedomorphic urodeles», J. Zool., 239, 253 – 284.

Satoh S. J. and Wakahara M. (1997), «Hemoglobin transition from larval to adult types in a salamander (Hynobius retardatus) depends upon activity of the pituitary gland, but not that of the thyroid gland», J. Exp. Zool., 278, 87 – 92.

Shishkin M. A. (1973), The Morphology of the Early Amphibia and Some Problems of the Lower Tetrapod Evolution, Nauka, Moscow [in Russian].

Smirnov S. V. and Vassilieva A. B. (2002), «The bony skull of the Siberian salamander, Salamandrella keyserlingi (Amphibia: Urodela: Hynobiidae) and the role of thyroid hormones in its development», Dokl. Biol. Sci, 385, 387 – 389.

Smirnov S. V. and Vassilieva A. B. (2003), «Skeletal and dental ontogeny in the smooth newt, Triturus vulgaris (Urodela: Salamandridae): role of thyroid hormone in its regulation», Russ. J. Herpetol., 10(2), 93 – 110.

Vorontsova M. A., Lyozner L. D., Markelova I. V., and Puchalskaya E. Ch. (1952), Newt and Axolotl, Sovetskaya Nauka, Moscow [in Russian].

Wakahara M. and Yamaguchi M. (1996), «Heterochronic expression of several adult phenotypes in normally metamorphosing and metamorphosis-arrested larvae of a salamander Hynobius retardatus», Zool. Sci., 13, 483 – 488.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

You can subscribe to the print or electronic version of the journal on the site of EastView Company. If you have any questions, please write to the email