The Structure of Postcranial Skeleton in Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae) at Underdevelopment of Pelvic Girdle

E. E. Kovalenko, Yu. I. Kruzhkova


The unique structure of postcranial skeleton under the condition of underdeveloped pelvis in Xenopus laevis is described. The specimen under analysis demonstrates the absence of both left and right iliac processes, the sharp bend of the posterior part of the axial skeleton and sacral processes, reduction of the intervertebral spaces and fusion of some of vertebrae. Such peculiarities of structure suggest that ilium is an essential factor for normal growth and development of the axial skeleton (especially of its coccygeosacral part) in Anura. The existing points of view on the cause-and-effect relations between sacrum, pelvis and hindlimbs during development are analyzed.


Anura; Xenopus; sacrum; pelvis; malformations; development

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